19 (2)
Issue
2019
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catalogue – 43669
ANTINOMIES
Foundation of journal. Issue topics About journal

Autors

Davydov, Dmitry

Post-graduate student, Institute of Philosophy and Law,

Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. Ekaterinburg. 

E-mail: davydovdmitriy90@gmail.com

 

Publications in yearbook
RONALD INGLHART'S CONCEPT OF POST-MATERIALISM IN CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of interpreting empirical data on the dynamics of values. Ronald Inglehart’s concept of post-materialism is criticized. It is argued that the true flourishing of post-materialistic values is impossible in the capitalist society. It is shown that many post-materialism’s achievements turns out to be not as significant as it is originally intended. Most likely, the observed manifestations of post-materialism in the post-war decades are connected with the achievements of a social state that does not allow strong social inequality, ensures the guarantees of education, employment, stable growth of the material well-being of citizens, and so on. It is shown that post-materialistic tendencies are quickly reversed with the transition towards neoliberal model of economy; it is confirmed by longitudinal studies of the youth values. According to the results of these studies, today there is a significant shift towards “external” priorities (money, fame, image, etc.). The values of selfrealization declared by representatives of young generations are often results from the overestimated self-esteem and narcissistic obsession with one's own person. In words, the representatives of young generations are more concerned with public problems, although in reality they show less empathy and altruism. Self-realization through social activity, labor and self-development is often replaced by “wanting to be liked” in social media, or the desire to achieve success in virtual world. It is suggested that the dynamics of values testifies the formation of a rental society. In such a society, the acceleration of the rates of digitalization and automation of production is combined with the crisis of the educational institutions responsible for personal development, and the training of personnel for a high-tech economy. Therefore, representatives of the growing social stratum of “superfluous people” increasingly express their “materialistic” interest in a stable income independent of their work merits, as well as access to various kinds of entertainment.

Keywords: millennials, generation Z, post-capitalism, post-materialistic values, rental society.

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SOCIAL CAPITAL THEORY AS PART OF CAPITALIST DISCOURSE: PROBLEMS AND ALTERNATIVES

Abstract: The article discusses social capital theory in the context of conservative political thought. It is shown that the authors of social capital theory consider social ties as a source of economic well-being. They criticize the cult of individualism believing that the process of individualization entails a deficit of social capital. The author indicates the contradictoriness of this approach. Social ties should not be called ‘capital’ for ethical reasons. Metaphor of capital can be harmful as it distorts our perception of the real motives of associative behavior. Among such motives may be love, a sense of reciprocity and thankfulness, etc. Conceptual component of social capital theory is unclear too, as well as the relationship between social capital and capitalism. Experience shows that
real capital contributes to the destruction of what is usually meant by social capital. This situation forces the author to reconsider the role, which social capital theory plays today in political discussions. The author proposes an alternative term – “social of capitalism”. This term denotes those social phenomena, the essence of which is external to the essence of capitalism. In this connection, the author proposes an approach, according to which capitalism does not exist without something, to which it opposes. Some social phenomena oppose selfishness, therefore, they could inhibit a lot of negative aspects of capitalism. On the other hand, capitalism with its emphasis on individual liberty eliminates the evil, potentially stemming from fanaticism and fundamentalism of social associations. According to the author, this approach makes possible to raise the same issues, which are raised by social capital theory, while avoiding conceptual contradictions and distortion of meanings.
Keywords: capitalism, conservatism, social capital.

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Consumer Society and Death of Postmodernism

Abstract: the article analyzes relationship between the concepts of «consumer society», «risk society» and «postmodernism». Industrial economy promotes the growth of consumption by creation of new desires. However, excessive consumption leads to global risks such as environmental pollution. Some theorists suggest that overcoming of global risks is possible only through the struggle against capitalism and by creation of «new society» bonded by universalistic morality of some sort. The author expresses his disagreement with such radical thesis. In contrast to «the radicalized», the author suggests that modern society includes several self-renewal mechanisms. The main problem of the modern society is not consumption, but postmodernist area of simulations. Simulations (primarily in media) inhibit social reflexivity. Postmodernism is an area of illusions where actions lose their «real» consequences. Nevertheless, postmodernist simulations would be destroyed automatically when «world citizens» face a real risk of death. This threat would encourage seeking new solutions of global risks, which is possible within the existing social system.
Key words: risk society, consumer society, postmodernism.

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Conservative Reflection Ideology: Public Capital as a Concept

The author refers to the critical reflection of capitalist society. Modernity is the time of global risks and disasters, the cause of which can be found in the model of rational subject. According to the author, there are two ways of overcoming it: to destroy capitalism as such, or (over against) to operate existing subjectivity model, in which individual utility becomes the only acceptable argument. Social capital theory is notable here trough considering society in the mode of benefits derived by individuals from social relations. “Social capital” term, to our opinion, can be the concept framing possible vector of practical action – an attempt to overcome the increasing atomization of society. However, the author finds a number of conceptual vulnerabilities of social capital theory which are connected to the radical anti-capitalist theory criticism. This encourages us to revise and expand social capital theory by a new concept – «public capital». Social capital often implies local (personal) benefits derived from social interactions, but the nature of public capital is in critical rethinking of these "local benefits", which are often becomes a source of global risks.

Keywords: consumer society, public capital, social capital.

 

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AFTER CAPITALISM: THE END OF ALIENATION OR RENTAL ERASURE?

Abstract: The article is devoted to theoretical understanding of the alienation phenomenon. According to the author, modern views on the alienation phenomenon lead to erroneous forecasts, according to which modern capitalism gradually develops the communism of knowledge. This modern “cognitive capitalism” is characterized by the fact that instead of material assets creative self-realization and knowledge becomes the main factor of production, which is difficult to capitalize due to its public nature. According to the proponents of this idea, in cognitive capitalism personal freedom of being is gradually achieved (with the condition of overcoming consumerism), because the economic sphere moves towards abundance, as well as the regression of the need for compulsory labor. Nevertheless, the author expresses his disagreement with the theorists of cognitive capitalism as something prior to communism. According to the author, situation, in which everyone has a freedom of creativity, alienates a person no less than material poverty or forced and meaningless labor. Under the free competition of creativity, everyone has to justify constantly the originality and the significance of his/her ideas. However, it should be taken into account that there is a great chance for the reiteration of what has been said or demonstrated. The public nature of knowledge and creativity begins to alienate a person from his/her identity by distancing the purpose from the performer. This competition puts a person before a choice: to devote oneself completely to creativity or to give up being satisfied by the mediocre results. As a result, according to the author, the society of guaranteed minimal material wealth would be not communistic but rentoriented (rent society). Such a society is divided into the majority, consisting of those lived at the expense of public resources rentiers, and the productive “cognitive” class. In this regard, the author tries to find some alternatives to such an unfavorable scenario.
Keywords: capitalism, communism, cognitive capitalism, alienation, post-capitalism, rent society.

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Demidov Victor

Candidate of Law, Full Professor, President of Constitutional

Court of Republic of Tatarstan, Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Presidents of the

Constitutional (Charter) Courts of Subjects of the Russian Federation, Member of the Council of

Judges of the Russian Federation. Kazan'. E-mail: ksrt@ksrt.ru

Publications in yearbook
ROLE OF REGIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL JUSTICE IN IMPLEMENTING THE RULE OF LAW

Abstract: The article considers the bodies of constitutional justice that operate in Russia at the level of the subjects of Federation in terms of their contribution to the implementing the rule of
law. The Constitutional (Charter) Courts of the subjects of the Russian Federation are noted to have significant potential to strengthen the democratic rule-of-law state, especially in such areas as ensuring the supremacy of constitutional rules, the protecting the foundations of constitutional order, and respecting the fundamental human rights and freedoms. Activities of regional bodies of the constitutional (charter) justice allow to ensure the unity of federal and regional standards of the rule of law, provide additional safeguards to protect the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and their associations. This section of the unified judicial system of the Russian Federation verifies the constitutionality of regional and municipal regulations, implements the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Russian Federation and rules of international law in its decisions. Establishing the constitutional (charter) court the region creates a complete system of bodies of state power of the subject of Federation based on the principle of separation of powers and in the framework of those model of checks and balances, which is realized at the federal level of state power. The article concludes the activities of constitutional (charter) courts of the subjects of the Russian Federation objectively contribute to improve the existing legal regulation within the framework of constitutional (charter) rules.
Keywords: rule-of-law state, constitutional justice, constitutional (charter) courts of the subjects of the Russian Federation, rights and freedoms of individuals and citizens, supremacy of law, federalism, separation of powers.

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Demin, Ilya

Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Department of
Philosophy and History, Samara University, Samara. E-mail: ilyadem83@yandex.ru

Publications in yearbook
CRITIQUE OF HISTORISM IN LEO STRAUSS’S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

Abstract. The article discusses the motives and foundations of the critique of historism in Leo Strauss’s political philosophy. The major arguments suggested by Strauss against the principle of historicism are identified and put in order. All objections made by Strauss are divided into two groups. The first one includes those arguments, which challenge not the actual content of the principle of historism, but the value attributed to it in the context of philosophical and scientific knowledge. The second group includes the substantive objections to historism. Strauss analyzes and compares different versions
of historicism’ philosophy, identifies its common denominator, traces the genesis of historism as a cultural and historical relativism. The core of any historicism’s concept is the presumption of historical conditions of philosophy, and a statement of impossibility of universal answers to philosophical questions. Strauss regards historism as the main challenge facing modern philosophy. According to Strauss, the key role in the decomposition of the classical philosophical tradition and the formation of historicism concepts belongs to the idea of progress firmly established in modern times. The question of the relationship between philosophy and history, as well as philosophical and historical types of knowledge, is crucial for understanding the essence of historism, which formulates philosophical problems as historical-philosophical and historical ones. In understanding the relationship between philosophy and history, Strauss primarily relies on classical philosophical tradition; however, he also takes into account the experience of critique of historism in non-classical philosophical concepts such as neo-Kantianism, phenomenology, and critical rationalism. Strauss combines all major objections and arguments against historism proposed by representatives of various philosophical trends of the XX century. His own contribution to the critique of historism is the substantiation of the thesis that this principle may not have historical and empirical justification, but it is a self-contradictory philosophical concept. Strauss proves that historism cannot be refuted by historical facts and arguments; only it can be rejected due to another (but not less fundamental than historism itself) philosophical principle.
Keywords: historism, historicism, history, philosophy of history, relativism, classical philosophy, Leo Strauss.

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Deryabin, Maxim

Candidate of Philosophy, Researcher, Udmurt Branch, Institute

 

of Philosophy and Law, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhevsk.

 

E-mail: dml15@yandex.ru

 

Publications in yearbook
RE-DEFINITION OF THE SOCIAL IN SPORTS

Abstract: Different social discourses structure sociality. The meanings, which defines the discourse, gives special connotations that are rooted in the social. The article discusses the process of functioning of sports space and sports discourse. Its basic structuring elements such as competition, athlete, referee, spectator result are founded. These concepts are discussed in historical perspective that reveals the meaning of competition through the transition from war to sports. In addition, the position of the referee from Absolute subject in hostilities to the presence in the ring as the presenter of social meanings is defined. These structuring elements of the space are points of contact of sports with the social. During a match, allocation (transition of meaning from one person to another) of the social as social meaning occurs. In the same time, sports discourse begins to construct itself in accordance with the self-defined social values. Sports discourse reflects the dynamic and cyclical changes of social meanings that are presented in the dominance of certain values. Competitiveness, which is the basis of sports discourse, structures social space where
changing social meanings are objectified. Being present in specially organized space of competition, athlete gets socially approved opportunity to compete for the redistribution of symbolic capital. In the state of lack or absence of the language, social meanings are redistributed. As a result, sports event and purely sports meanings are reduced at the finish line. The final positions of the athlete’ bodies are interpreted in different social discourses. Discourse of sports presents dynamic and cyclical changes of social meanings expressed in the domination of certain values. Competitiveness, which is the basis of sports discourse, structures social space, in which changing social meanings are objectified.

Keywords: sports, competitiveness, social meaning, presence.

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Dolgikh, Andrei

Candidate of Philosophy, associate professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Vyatka State University of Humanities,

Kirov. E-mail: regis-iii@rambler.ru

Publications in yearbook
THREE VIEWS ON THE PROBLEM OF PARANORMAL

Abstract: The article presents three approaches towards the problem of so-called paranormal. The first could be considered as a subjective one: the paranormal phenomena are regarded as perception errors, imaginary objects, or abnormal visions. The second approach presupposes objective existence of such deviations and defines them as fundamentally knowable (although not immediately, but rather in the distant future; what is considered as paranormal in a given moment are only those facts, which contradict to the known laws of nature). The third view is based on the admission of objective character of paranormal too, but contrary to the previous version, this one is agnostic. Within this approach, the possibility of any reliable knowledge of the nature of paranormal is rejected. The reason for this is incompatibility of one or another kind of the observed phenomena with human cognitive ability. The authors elaborate the idea that a phenomenon, which most properly matches the concept of “paranormal”, is the one characterized by singularity, uniqueness, incompatibility with any known laws of nature and causal connections, and, consequently, unpredictable; a phenomenon, which is not a subject of verification and falsification, in other words, unchecked with scientific methods. However, the very possibility of such events (primarily, in the supernatural sense) is unlikely to be recognized as problematic so far.

Keywords: paranormal, laws of nature, cognition, individuality, probability, predictability

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HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY AND CHRISTIANITY IN THE TIMES OF CRISIS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THIRD CENTURY A.D.

The article illustrates that the Roman Empire crisis in the third century A.D. usually considered as political and economic was to no lesser extent expressed in the decline of philosophy and impoverishment of Christianity. Apparently, only three philosophical schools out of the six largest ones established in the IV–III centuries B.C. survived – Academy, Lyceum and Stoa. At the same time, the activity of their representatives was almost completely reduced to commenting on ancient philosophical heritage and on writing texts that had no direct relationship to philosophy. There were signs of some rapprochement between academic and peripatetic philosophers, which resulted in the actual merge of these schools by the end of the IV century. In Christianity, new churches no longer arose, and the old ones, which often offered very unusual kinds of faith, ceased to be attractive for proselytes. There was no subsequent philosophic revival; therefore, one could conclude that indeed the third century could be regarded as the boundary between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Nonetheless, the few brilliant thinkers of this period (Plotinus, Porphyry, Mani, Origen, Sabellius) had a big influence on subsequent philosophy and Christianity.

Keywords: crisis, philosophy, philosophical school, Christianity.

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Dolin, Vyacheslav

Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Department of
Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Sciences, Belgorod Law Institute of the Ministry of
Interior Affairs of Russia, named after I. Putilin, Belgorod, Russia.
E-mail: v.a.dolin@mail.ru

Publications in yearbook
CONCEPT OF “FOURTH GENERATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS”: ATTEMPT OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL RATIONALE

This article is an attempt of philosophical and anthropological substantiation of the concept the “Fourth generation of human rights”, which develops the generational approach to the classification of human rights. Progress of convergent technology combining nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies, is the objective basis for emergence of the analyzed concept. The methodological ground of the article is post-non-classical paradigm of human rights, and the anthropology of moderate bio-conservatism advocatingfor progressive development of technology against the human nature transformation. Convergent-technological and panhuman understanding of the concept of the “fourth generation of human rights” is identified based of conducted analysis. The submission on the fifth and sixth generations of human rights is refused through the application of “Occam's razor”. The fourth generation of human rights is associated with individual rights to influence current and further capabilities of convergent technologies to his or her own body but taking into account actual and potential limitations. In the article, the concepts of “human nature”, “corporality” and “freedom” are used for justification of analyzed concept from philosophical and anthropological standpoint. Their analysis allows us to formulate conclusions with methodological significance for understanding of the concept of the “fourth generation of human rights”. Firstly, it is the dialectical unity of constancy and change in human nature, which is understood as a multicomponent phenomenon. Secondly, it is the importance of human being as the evolutionary current corporality. Thirdly, it is the combination of voluntary refusal at individual level from potentially dangerous of the future of human technology and legal limitations of technology usage, the threat of which is regarded dangerous for community. The author criticizes the liberal anthropological understanding of the concept the “fourth generation of human rights”, which ignores the commonality with other people. These conclusions are substantiated with anthropology of moderate bio-conservatism; they constitute a conceptual limitation of implementation of somatic rights of person, which makes possible to synthesize the convergent-technological and panhuman understanding of the concept the “fourth generation of human rights”. The results of the research contributes to rationale of universal conception of human rights.
Keywords: human rights; generation of human rights; convergent technologies; biological conservatism; human nature; freedom; corporality.

 

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Durán Armando Zerolo

PhD, Associate Professor of San Pablo CEU University
of Madrid, Spain. E-mail: azduran@ceu.es

Publications in yearbook
SPANISH LIBERALISM OF THE XIX CENTURY: FROM IDEAL OF NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY TO CONSTITUTIONALISM


Abstract. Liberalism appears in Spain at the beginning of the XIX century as a spontaneous popular movement against Napoleonic absolutism. The nation becomes self-conscious; as a result, political modernity comes to Spain. Peculiarity of Spanish political reality is that unlike other countries liberals fight for the establishment of the monarchy of Fernando VII but not against it, how it been, for example, in France. The relations of liberalism with the monarchy give it a very specific character. Ideologically, this is original liberalism because it results from the typically Spanish political reality – “medieval Spanish monarchy” founded by “Catholic kings”, and both moderate liberals and right-wing radicals value it. This political form is a fundamental myth of Spanish liberalism, and is the forerunner of the modern constitutional monarchy. Spanish liberalism is an unrealized attempt; it never obtained its own political body and proved to be incompatible with the masses, which led to the civil war of 1936–1939s.
Keywords: liberalism, Spanish monarchy, sovereignty, modern constitutionalism, XIXth century Spain.

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Dyakova, Elena

Doctor of Political Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

E-mail: gf-urfo@bk.ru

Publications in yearbook
PUBLIC COUNCILS IN THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONS

Abstract: The article examines the formation of the legal framework of public councils that operate in the public administration system. Particular attention is paid to the process of interaction between public councils and public chambers as an advisory and consultative bodies, inscribed in the public administration system. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of regional public chambers and public councils’ formation on both federal and regional level is undertaken (on the example of the regions in the Ural Federal District). It is shown that the federal innovations aimed at enhancing self-sufficiency of public councils and their independence from the public administration are poorly reflected on the regional level. Regional public chambers have relatively small influence on the formation of public councils. The regional legislation in terms of interaction between public chambers and public councils needs to be brought into line with federal trends.
Keywords: public council, public chamber, civic control, civil society, legal framework

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Global versus National: E-government as Element of Chinese Administrative Reform

The article discusses the problem of interaction between global administrative trends and national administrative cultural tradition during the e-government transition in China. Selection of China, despite its low position in the UN e-government ranking (78 in 2012) is made due to the fact that today the country is seen as the model of post-socialist and post-colonial sustainable development. E-government is seen in China as an instrument of control over subordinate authorities, as well as an additional instrument of control from below through the citizen’s appeals. PRC system is quite logical in nature and corresponds to the Chinese administrative tradition of strong state with low level of alienation of citizens from the government. Popular management trends are included into the existing system of management priorities aimed on supporting sustainable economic development and political stability. China's experience of e-government transition shows, on the one hand, the importance of studying the social and cultural contexts, in which it takes place; on the other hand, in shows the need to take into account the global nature of reforms (and the corresponding rhetoric).

Keywords: e-government, administrative reform, administrative cultural traditions, cross-societal organizational emulation.

 

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GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION AS PROCESS OF SOCIAL ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY (Case of Public Health computerization in Sverdlovsk region)

Abstract: The article describes the process of social adoption of informational Technology using the example of the health care system in the Sverdlovsk region. The article is based on the
results of qualitative social research with the participation of the staff of regional health institutions and developers of medical information systems (employees of the Medical Information and Analytical Center of Sverdlovsk region). The author analyzes the causes of organizational resistance to the introduction and use of medical information systems (MIS). The author pays special
attention to the attitude of employees of health institutions towards the formation of a Unified State Health Information System (EGISZ) and electronic appointment system. The author shows
the lack of effective communication between medical professionals and MIS developers. Developers think that they know better what physicians need. They are convinced that physicians have
to accept the proposed solutions regardless of their wishes. The tendency to ignore the causes of organizational resistance of health care workers is one of the most important factors contributing to the low efficiency of MIS.
Keywords: social adoption of technology, health care computerization, Unified State Health Information System, main actors, organizational resistance.

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"Digital Divide" as Legitimate Social Problem: Cultural Differences inside the Great Narrative

The article suggests that from the very beginning “digital divide” has been constructed by the state as a legitimate social problem on the basis of etatist great narratives. The author argues that the state remains the only subject of construction and resolution of “digital divide” problem in Russia Civil society is just at the beginning of realizing its objectives and wishes in the sphere of communicative technologies.

Keywords: digital divide, construction of social problems, social problem’s cycle, legitimization, “rhetoric of the American dream”, the egalitarian rhetoric, development of the information society in Russia.

 

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E-Government Transition as the Process of Institutional Adoption

Institutional adoption to the provision of on-line government services is a complex social process which represents the unity of assimilation and accommodation. The article analyzes the institutional adoption process in Russia including formation of the legal framework and implementation of e-documents and government service portals. 

Keywords: e-government, institutional adoption, legal framework, government service portal.

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E-Government Development as an Object of Theoretical Construction

Three main models of e-government development are considered from the standpoint of neo-institutionalism. Russian type of e-government is defined as model № 2: development driven by administrative demand.

Keywords: neo-institutionalism, e-government, e-government development index, e-government model.

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E-GOVERNMENT TRANSITION IN INTERNATIONAL INDEXES AND NATIONAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CULTURE (USA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION)

E-GOVERNMENT TRANSITION IN INTERNATIONAL INDEXES AND NATIONAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CULTURE  (USA, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION) 
The paper shows that international e-government development rankings do not take into account political regime and specific features of national administrative culture that define a set of core objectives of e-government transition. Global e-government discourse is used pragmatically for solving local problems, and the same terms have different meanings. This thesis is justified based on comparative analysis of e-government transition in USA, Peoples Republic of China and Russian Federation. Information technology implementation to US public administration was hold under the slogan of citizen’s empowerment, and was bossed on the experience gained in e-commerce. Chinese e-government is formed for improving the efficacy of local authorities by tightening central control, and is designed to support economic growth. Russian approach to e-government transition is contradictory, and it includes a lot of equally important goals. This is typical for domestic administrative culture. 

Keywords: E-government, e-government development index, global discourse, public administration culture.

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"Electronic government" as the element of etatist discourse of information society

The article analyses the concept of the “electonic government” and proves its ideological character as the element of etatist discourse of “information society”. The author uses official sites of Russian governmental powers as the example.

Keywords: “Electronic government”, “information society”, etatist discourse, official sites of governmental powers.

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