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Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)

Dolgikh, Andrei

The article illustrates that the Roman Empire crisis in the third century A.D. usually considered as political and economic was to no lesser extent expressed in the decline of philosophy and impoverishment of Christianity. Apparently, only three philosophical schools out of the six largest ones established in the IV–III centuries B.C. survived – Academy, Lyceum and Stoa. At the same time, the activity of their representatives was almost completely reduced to commenting on ancient philosophical heritage and on writing texts that had no direct relationship to philosophy. There were signs of some rapprochement between academic and peripatetic philosophers, which resulted in the actual merge of these schools by the end of the IV century. In Christianity, new churches no longer arose, and the old ones, which often offered very unusual kinds of faith, ceased to be attractive for proselytes. There was no subsequent philosophic revival; therefore, one could conclude that indeed the third century could be regarded as the boundary between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Nonetheless, the few brilliant thinkers of this period (Plotinus, Porphyry, Mani, Origen, Sabellius) had a big influence on subsequent philosophy and Christianity.

Keywords: crisis, philosophy, philosophical school, Christianity.

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