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The Origins of Apollo Cult and the Poet Olen

Matveychev, Oleg

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to draw scholars’ attention to the figure of the poet Olen from Lycia who was ignored by most researchers of ancient culture due to the scarcity of information, and to place him into a wide context of discussions about the origin of the Apollo cult. The article demonstrates the diversity of views on the genesis and evolution of the Apollonian cult, examines the Asia Minor’s, Thracian’s, Doric’s and “Nordic’s” hypotheses; notes the “foreignness” of Apollo in relation to the Olympic pantheon, as well as the connection of his image with the legendary country of Hyperborea. The swiftness with which the cult of Apollo spread throughout the Greek world suggests that this did not happen spontaneously, but due to someone’s conscious and systematic efforts. One of the messengers of the powerful northern God could be Olen who, according to legend, founded the Temple of Apollo at Delphi and was the first to pronounce his prophecies in hexameters, thus acting as the first poet who invented the very form of poetry. Being both a poet and a soothsayer, Olen was an example of an ancient mantis, a “vedun” involved in divine truths giving things their names. Apollo himself has pronounced features of a “vedun”, being a god-musician, healer, mastermind of poets, a foreseer of the future. Contrary to popular belief that the mantis prophesied exclusively in a state close to madness, the author indicates that divination was a special intense thought process. The rehabilitation of divination as an intellectual phenomenon increases its significance in the history of Greek thought. Mantic poetry may well be considered as one of the sources of philosophy, the genesis of which seems to be a more multifaceted phenomenon than the movement “from myth to logos” described by V. Nestle’s formula. Given the multifaceted cult of Apollo in which you can find the northern, Cretan-Mycenaean, Asia Minor, and Doric roots, we can assume that Olen professed the cult of only one “hypostasis” of the radiant god – the Hyperborean (most likely, the original), with which all other components of the cult are joined over time.

Keywords: history of philosophy; Ancient Greek religion; mythology; poetry; shamanism; Ancient Greece; Hyperborea; Delphi; Delos; Apollo; Olen.

Karl Marx on species essence of a human being

Kondrashov, Pyotr

Abstract. The article is based on a detailed textual analysis is the attempt of historicalphilosophical explication of the formation of Karl Marx’s teaching about the species essence of human beings (Gattungswesen des Menschen). In modern studies of Marx’s philosophy, the view according to which Marx understands the nature of human beings only as «the ensemble of social relations» dominates. However, as the author shows, there are several definitions in Marx’s texts. Thus, the species essence of human beings is defined as: (1) true social relation of people, genuine community (Gemeinwesen); (2) praxis (Praxis); (3) creative activity (productive Tätigkeit, Selbstbetätigung); (4) ensemble of social relations (das ensemble der gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse). Constitutive moments of the human essence arising from the praxis as a basic characteristic of a person are: objectivity, intersubjectivity, sociality, historicity and existential indifference. It is shown that according to Marx the species essence of human being is not given by nature but arises in the course of historical development. Moreover, in the «Capital» Marx distinguishes between an invariant essence (Praxis) and the historical modifications of praxis. So, the history is understood as a «continuous change of human nature». For thefirst time in the history of philosophy, the historical sequence of the development of Marx’s ideas about the species essence of man is explicated. Despite the radical changes in Marx's philosophical preferences (the transition from Fichte’s subjective idealism to Hegel’s objective idealism and then to materialism), his ideas about the species essence of human beings however has been changing not so much as series of «jumps», but rather as a dialectical movement towards a deeper, comprehensive development and enrichment of the original humanistic intuitions, which eventually led him to the formulation of the original concept of human being.

Keywords: Karl Marx’s philosophy; species essence of human being; praxis; ensemble of social relations; sociality; objectivity; historicity; existential indifference.

Political science

Authoritarian tendencies in Turkey and the radicalization of the ruling Justice and Development Party

Agaev Marilyas

Abstract. The article is devoted to the formation of authoritarian tendencies in Turkey as the radicalization of the ruling Justice and Development Party. The author refers to the conceptions of “democratic retreat” and “the third wave of democratic backsliding” and considers the changes introduced in the functioning of the ruling party as one of the main reasons for the change in the methods of governing by the Turkish political elite. Highlighting two stages in the development of the political regime of R.T. Erdogan – 2002–2011 democratization and 2011 till present – as an authoritarian turn, the article provides explanation for the features of the political course of those times in terms of the structure and transformation of Justice and Development Party’s political discourse. The changes in the properties of the party’s political strategy such as coalition closeness, populist orientation, reliance on reforms and principles of democracy, and the moderate nature of the political style led to the radicalization of the Justice and Development Party. The radicalization of politics was manifested in Turkey’s anti-Western foreign policy, with the predominance of negative political language in relation to political opponents and the deactivation of the principle of “checks and balances” in favor of expanding the powers and role of executive power in the face of president of Turkey R.T. Erdogan in the political system. It is especially worth noting about the influence of “external shock” on the political system. Among such “external shock”, there is a need to highlight the growth of protest moods, corruption scandals related to political environment of R.T. Erdogan, the increase in the influence of opposition parties on the political system and any possibility of limiting power of R.T. Erdogan up to the organization of attempts of military coup. The article concludes that in order to prevent a decrease in the party’s ratings in the face of “external shocks”, the party’s actions were adjusted so that it subsequently led to the creation of conditions for an authoritarian turn.

Keywords: democracy; election; Erdogan; Justice and Development Party; populism; regime; Turkey.

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Local self-government in legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and its judges in the context of Constitutional reform 2020

Chikhladze Lewan , Boldyrev Oleg

Abstract. The 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation laid down new trends in the development of local self-government. The Constitutional Court plays an important role in protecting the constitutional right to exercise local self-government, in the formation and transformation of the Russian model of local self-government. The article discusses some of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, which were based on the norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation until the 2020 amendments. It is shown that the decisions in many cases that were considered by the Constitutional Court and touched upon various problems of local self-government used discussion among judges, which is reflected in a number of opinions and dissenting opinions. In the Opinion of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of March 16, 2020 No. 1-Z, the Constitutional Court concluded that the amendments to the Constitution are consistent with chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution. However, the article  shows that the amendments to the Constitution continue the tendency to centralize not only the state, but the entire system of public authority in Russia. A number of amendments to the Constitution emasculate many of the legal positions previously formulated by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Accordingly, the constitutional foundations of the Russian model of local self-government will undergo significant changes. So far, one can only predict how this will affect the change in the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Constitution of the Russian Federation; Law on Amendments to the Constitution; local self-government; legal positions of the Constitutional Court; dissenting opinions of judges of the Constitutional Court; territorial settlement principle; formation of local self-government bodies.

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Differentiation criteria of new dissertation from the same dissertation which cannot be defended repeatedly (the variant of normative regulation)

Kokotova Darya

Abstract. This article is devoted to close such gap in law. The consequences of violation of paragraph 14 of the Regulations on awarding scientific degrees and (or) submission of false information about publications is deprivation of right to defend a dissertation repeatedly (also if such dissertation has been changed). However, we have no differentiation criteria (is this a new dissertation or the same dissertation, which cannot proposed to be used) by scientific journals to find duplicate-publication (including analysis of manuscript conditions on scientific journals, websites, practice of retraction of scientific articles, expertise presented by Dissernet). The author proposes to use such differentiation criteria: 1) proportion of reproduction of previous dissertation; 2) proportion of original text in the part of dissertation, which is not same as previous dissertation; 3) which parts are the same in previous dissertation, if some elements are the same, specifically in: conclusion; defended positions; description of scientific novelty; abstract of dissertation; articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals where main scientific results of dissertation are published; 4) comparison of the structure of dissertations; 5) new empirical basis; 6) scientific novelty of dissertation in comparison with previous dissertation. The author notes that is possible to use other criteria. It is proposed to utilize different criteria depending on the stage of process of defense of dissertation, and the competence of a person who is authorized to decide if it is a new dissertation. Also, as a result of the analysis of possible variant of criteria normative regulation, the author proposes variant of amendments of legal acts, which regulate dissertation requirements and process of defense of dissertation.

Keywords: new dissertation; same dissertation; differentiation criteria; deprivation of right to defend a dissertation repeatedly; self-plagiarism.

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