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Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)


Obolkina Svetlana

Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg. E-mail: obol2007@mail.ru 

Publications in yearbook
Machine Ontology. The Splendors and Miseries of Machinism
The machine is an intermediary between the natural reality and the impossible reality up to a point. Therefore, understanding this phenomenon in the ontological dimension is a necessary element in the analysis of the problems of both the present and the future. In the philosophy of the 20th and 21st centuries, the concept of a machine is very relevant. Machinism develops around it as a worldview and philosophical direction. However, the machine remains “understandable by default” for it: this concept acts as a tool for analyzing society, culture or the psyche. This turns out to be possible by ignoring a significant part of the semantic spectrum of μηχανή. The exception is the mechanology of Jacques Lafitte and Gilbert Simondon, which is interested in the machine as a particular invention. In this article, the methodology of machine analysis relies on the object-oriented ontology by Ian Bogost. Based on the conducted research, a number of conclusions has been made. Firstly, it is possible to talk about the identity of reality and the machine only for the basic ontological level; a person has created an artifact, which is an objectified ontological constituent. However, at the next, higher level, this identity falls apart: the machine is what it is, because it does not coincide with natural reality being distinguished by the nature of its existence. The invention of the machine is an ontological work in its nature: it is the creation of an interaction system of one-dimensional spaces. In its reasoning, machinism does not take into account these conceptual points using the machine as a metaphor. Therefore, its conceptual resources interfere with the understanding of modern machines and their interaction with humans. Secondly, some modern inventions in the field of generative artificial intelligence are new types of machines (non-classical machines) that include the factor of probability and ambiguity as an element of the mechanism. Human invention is reaching a new ontological level, which requires an updated conceptual toolkit. 
Keywords: machine, invention, machinism, mechanism, philosophy of the machine, machine ontology, non-classical machine, artificial intelligence, neural network
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The article analyzes the notions of marginality in socio-psychological and cultural dimensions. Today, two opposing epistemological tendencies have emerged: first, marginality is assessed positively as a synonym for the notion of creative renewal. The second tendency emphasizes the destructive role of marginality for the individual and society. Primarily, these tendencies are formed due to not quite correct approximation, and even identification of two meanings: “liminality” – “marginality”, on the one hand, and “lumpen” – “marginal”, on the other. Therefore, the scope of the concept of “marginal” is so wide, and often includes phenomena with the opposite social function, which causes many researchers to doubt its scientific significance. The intention of the article is philosophical reflection over cognitive attitudes, which has created modern understanding of marginality. The goal is to find semantic constant in equally important but opposite semantic vectors of this concept. The key concept of the meta-language in relation to the theme of marginality is concept’s prehension category, which makes possible to talk about specifics of convergent meanings, and to consider ontological prerequisites underlying their identification. Further, modern understanding of social marginality is analyzed in the context of its original meaning: “marginalia” as a note on page side (margin). This helps to rethink the fundamental metaphor serving as the cognitive guide to the study of marginalization process. The author examines it in the context of P. Bourdieu’s theory of social fields, as well as the philosophy of the Other. The notion of the mythologeme “own/alien”, and “homo sacer” formula in solving the question of semantic constant of “marginality” suggests that marginality is related to the category of social norm, and the norm itself is apophatically determined by the phenomenon of marginality.

Keywords: marginal, marginality, liminality, lumpen, concept’s prehension, doxa, social norm.

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Technological Civilization and Human Corporality

The phenomenon of interconnection between the human body and technical de- vices is considered as a peculiarity of technological civilization. The analysis is developed on the ground of philosophical anthropology, human corporality is used as the main category.  Engineering, technological civilization, engineering philosophy, anthropological approach, corporality, paradigm of corporality, techno evolution.

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The article contains brief analysis of philosophical-cultural and methodological prerequisites of general and social ecology. General ecology in contrast to social ecology demonstrates the object adequacy and methodological constituency. That is why the use of its methodological thesaurus enables foreseeing perspectives of new and more effective scientific strategy of ecology.


Keywords: general ecology, social ecology, evolutional paradigm, reductionism, energy approach, culture, civilization.


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Ontological Dimension on the Borderline between Antiquity and Middle Ages

The article suggests the analysis of ontological strategies in the period of late antiquity and early Middle Ages. The author pays special attention toward second” sophistic. Ontological dimension of the epoch is considered as interaction and rivalry of philosophical, Gnostic and patristic traditions.

Keywords: ontology, sophistic, Gnosticism, hermeneutics, patristic, theory of nomination, mythological approach toward language.

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Ocheretina Maria

Institute of Philosophy and Law, Ural Branch of Russian academy of sciences, Ekaterinburg, E-mail: malarti@yandex.ru


Publications in yearbook
Concept and Types of the Institute of Public Hearings

The author analyzes the legal nature of public hearings and their main characteristics. The article describes the main types of public hearings as the institute of deliberative democracy and shows possibilities of its implementation.

Keywords: public hearings, deliberative democracy, characteristics and concept of public hearings, types of public hearings, significance of public hearings.


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Formation and Development of the Institute of Public Hearing

The article analyzes the institute of public hearing in the context of development of deliberative democracy institutes, describes history of formation and development of deliberative democracy institutes in Russia and foreign countries and examines the status of present-day Russian public hearing legislation.

Keywords: public hearing, deliberative democracy, history of formation and development of the institute of public hearing, public hearing legislation.

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Oleynikova Regina

Analyst of the Russian sector of real estate market, Association of real estate agents of region of Murcia, Spain, E-mail: reginaoley@yahoo.com

Publications in yearbook
Spanish Sector of Real Estate and Russia

The authors analyze economic crisis in Spain, which has influenced Spanish real estate sector very negatively, and give recommendations how to overcome it. Through analyzing the data of the Spanish-Russian relations, the authors reveal many potential possibilities for both parties in this sector. Special attention is given to problems of Russian tourism in Spain: the authors demonstrate some advantages of Spain as tourist direction, and at the same time indicate many complex political problems, which prevent its development. In this regard, the foremost problem is Spanish restrictive politics, but also an absence of complete information about Spanish tourist possibilities for Russia, and limited air communication between two countries. The authors conclude that Russians could invest in Spanish economics by buying the property in Spain.


Keywords: economic crisis, sector of real estate, investments, Spain, Russia.

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Ostapovich Igor

Department of Constitutional Law, Ural State Law University, Yekaterinburg, Russia, E-mail: ostapovich7@mail.ru 


Publications in yearbook
Constitutionalism in the Republic of Kazakhstan: Genesis and Features
The study examines the genesis and features of the formation of modern constitutionalism in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authors made an attempt to reveal the specifics of Kazakhstan constitutionalism, its axiology and describe the adopted governance mechanisms. They prove that the dynamics of transformations of the Kazakhstan constitutionalism is based on neo-patrimonial social relations and neopatrimonial relations of power, and the purpose of the ongoing constitutional reforms is to preserve the stability of the state structure, taking into account the spiritual, moral, cultural and historical characteristics of the peoples inhabiting Kazakhstan. To determine the peculiarities of Kazakhstan constitutionalism, the authors use the methods of political science: general logical and empirical, dogmatic and neoinstitutionalistic approaches, special legal methods of cognition: formal legal method, formal logical method, systemic method, technical and legal method. The article substantiates that the so-called superpresidential era ends in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the characteristics of the presidential-parliamentary system appear. The authors put forward the following thesis: this situation is caused by the fact that the ex-president did not bring up a successor capable of adequately continuing and developing the cause of building a sovereign Kazakhstan. Therefore, it is necessary to change the mechanisms of state administration in order to preserve power in the hands of the ex-president using other means. It also serves as a means of minimizing the risk that the incumbent president will not be able to fully respond to the challenges facing the state, which would have negative consequences for large social groups. It should also be noted that the authors' task was not to analyze the institution of the national leader (elbasy) and its place in the constitutional system of Kazakhstan. The article notes that the development of Kazakhstan constitutionalism goes through three main stages. At the first stage, there is a conflict between the Kazakh traditions of state structure and the Soviet model of state structure. The second stage is the abolition of Soviet constitutional decisions and the simultaneous formation of the Kazakh state structure of the state of Kazakhstan. And the third stage is the construction of monarchical presidentialism as a form of government that contributes to the stability of the state structure and international subjectivity of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and subsequently – its dismantling, justified by the same constitutional values.
Keywords: Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan; constitutionalism; president; succession of power; state authorities
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