19 (2)
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2019
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ANTINOMIES
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Introduction

Philosophy

"HEART RIOT" IN THE AGE OF REASON (dedicated to 300th Anniversary of Jean-Jacques Rousseau)

Miroshnikov, Yuri

In the article, an attempt has been made to reveal Rousseau’s views on the role of feelings (emotions) in human mentality and in spiritual activity. The author shows that according to Rousseau there is qualitative difference between perception and emotions (feelings). Rousseau considers emotional sphere “(heart)” to be the centre of human personality. The priority of emotion in human perception is crucially significant not only for moral behavior, but also for artistic, religious, political, legal and even scientific and cognitive activity. Thus, Rousseau severely criticizes rationalism of XVII–XVIII century philosophy and asserts the principle of emotivism in the form of sentimentalism. 

Keywords: reason and emotion, objective and valuable features of being, rationalism and emotivism, priority of emotional and evaluative elements in cognition and self-knowledge, sentimentalism as form of emotivism.

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Understanding of Concepts of "Idea", "Form", and "Originality" in German Philosophy and their Influence on Copyright

Kartasheva, Anna

The article deals with the concepts of “originality”, “form” and “idea” in terms of their relationship to the problem of copyright. Formation of the first laws on the protection of creativity parallels the formation of modern European entity as the holder of individuality. The author does not just hover to the reader ideas, which convey in the air, but creates new content, putting ideas in their original form. The article makes an attempt to trace German philosophical concepts, which are especially important for the copyright. The concepts of “ideas” and "forms" in Kant's philosophy are closely related to the creative ability of the imagination. Originality is inherent in both forms and ideas – but if the originality of idea is in its geniality, the originality of form is entirely the merit of the work of imagination of the writer. G.V.F. Hegel spoke about the difficulty of defining the boundaries of the fair use of works, because inevitably there is a chain of debt, citations, repetitions.The original form of the work is the subject of protection by copyright. On the contrary, the idea could not be protected in principle, and therefore it is freely available.

Keywords: form, idea, copyright law, composition, author, the creative ability of the imagnation, originality, German classical philosophy.

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Man and Modernity: Peculiarities of I.A. Ilyin's Interpretation of G. W. F. Hegel's Philosophy

Rusakova, Olga , Kolomeytseva, Tatiana

The article observes Habermas’s concept of modernity in the context of historic-philosophical analysis of the peculiarities of I.A. Ilyin’s anthropological interpretation of Hegel's philosophy. The author proves that I.A. Ilyin was definitely a man of modernity who opposed private religious belief (the fusion of Protestantism and Orthodoxy) to traditional values of the modernization process in Russia at the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century. The authors describes I.A. Ilyin’s understanding of Hegel's philosophy, which includes the suffering God-man (that occurs in the moment of “melting” of God and human being in the process of cognition), which becomes the anthropological ideal of modernity.

Keywords: I.A. Ilyin’s anthropological interpretation of Hegel's philosophy, God, the God-man, G.W.F. Gegel, I.A. Ilyin, modernity, pantheism, Protestantism, man.

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Vulgar Materialism as a "Computation Blunder" in Two-valued Algebra of Metaphysics (Eleatic Metaphysics and its Relation to "Matter" and "Consciousness" as Evaluation-functions determined by two Variables in Two-valued Algebra of Formal Axiology)

Lobovikov, Vladimir

The philosophical categories “being”, “non-being”, “matter (material)”, “idea (ideal), “consciousness”, “contradiction”, “dialectics”, “change”, “non-change (permanence)” are studied as evaluation-functions in two-valued metaphysics-algebra. Metaphysics is interpreted as formal axiology. In the first part of the paper, the above-mentioned categories are considered as evaluation-functions determined by one evaluation-variable. In the second part, the ones are con- sidered as evaluation-functions determined by two variables. The equivalence relation among these functions is defined in mentioned algebra. It is demonstrated that the evaluation-functions determined by two variables are fundamental generalizations of corresponding functions determined by one variable. Lists of equations of algebra of metaphysics are generated. The vulgar materialism is nothing but a “computation blunder” in this algebra.

Keywords: being, matter, consciousness, materialism, metaphysics, dialectics, formal, axiology, algebra, evaluation, function. 

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Philosophic-historical Method of K. Marx

Kondrashov, Pyotr , Lubutin, Konstantin

There is a variety of works devoted to the analysis of Marx’s philosophic-historical methodology. However, most of them are characterized by one-sidedness, which is caused by the consideration of Marx’s method either as being out of subject and strictly causal (Marxism-Leninism, Althusser); or making emphasize on the anthropological aspect (humanistic neo-Marxism); or even with the denial of any scientific character (Popper, Hayek). Following the results of critical analysis, the authors conclude that Marx's philosophic-historical methodology represents not a vulgarly interpreted «materialistic view of history», but praxeological interpretation of historical process. Relying on the materialistic historical dialectics, this interpretation comprises both the materialistic and «idealistic» view of history, because, according to Marx, history appears to be a result of the development of human social nature – the activity (Praxis), which is the synthesis of the material («work») and ideal (goal-setting) acts.

Keywords: Marx's philosophy of history, philosophic-historical methodology of Marx, materialistic view of history, praxeological view of history, materialist dialectics, historicity, alternativeness of history.

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Social Forecasts of K. Marx

Koryakovtsev, Andrey

The article is devoted to the prognostic potential of Karl Marx’s social theory. In particular, the author directs reader’s attention towards Marxist conception of proletarian revo- lution and modern process of socialization, which take place due to the development of high technologies. The article observes modern “consumer society” through the lenses of Marxian “global private ownership” social theory. Social potential of the Internet is analyzed in connection with the problem of direct social production raised by Karl Marx. The author concludes that Karl Marx was right in his prediction of the global proletarian revolution, although, his theory was not accurate in determining its particular results. Therefore, classical Marxism allows making prognosis about the future of social process. Such process in connection with growing socialization take place inside the capitalism and because of it. In so doing, classical Marxism gets shape as it is, especially in the case of proletarian revolution theory.  

Keywords: Marxism, social forecasts, working class, communism, revolutionary theory, L. Feuerbach, information technologies.

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Features of Knowledge in Non-classical Science

Bryanik, Nadezda

Abstract: the article gives an epistemological analysis of non-classical science through comparison with the peculiarities of knowledge in the classical science. Subjectiveness of knowledge in the non-classical science is determined by the scientific reality. Varieties of scientific realities are constructed through certain methodologies and theories, and represent the unique fusion of objective and subjective circumstances and factors. In contrast to mechanic and descriptive position, non-classical science aims to clarify specifics of the examined objects and to disclose their essence.

Keywords: non-classical/classical science, the concreteness of knowledge, scientific reality (physical, social, historical, psychological, etc.), external manifestations / essence, specific regularities.

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Complementary Principle of N. Bohr and Problem of its Status

Makarov, Andrey

The article is devoted to the problem of scientific and philosophical status of complementarity principlef. The author analyzes its explication by N. Bohr and its comprehension by scientists and epistemologists. It is shown that generally, the complementarity principle is a set of ideas, which allows comprehending of specific situation in quantum mechanics. Some of ideas – the role of language of classical physics, the role of macro-instrument, the integrity of scientific experiment, the integrity of micro-object – could be seen as general scientific and epistemological principles. The prohibition of ontologisation of quantum phenomenon, which necessarily leads to contradictions is considered as the semantic core of Bohr’s approach. However, the attempts of its generalization in science and philosophy were not successful. The complementarity postulate is viewed as methodological principle of foundations of quantum mechanics in its Copenhagen interpretation. 

Keywords: complementarity principle, phenomenon, ontologisation, contradiction, generalization, Copenhagen interpretation.

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Religion in USA and Western Europe: Exception or Rule?

Stepanova, Elena

The article observes the differences in religious situation in the USA and Western Europe, as well as the concepts of American and European scholars of religion, which strive to interpret those differences (P. Berger, G. Davie, S. Bruce, N. Ammerman, J. Casanova, D. Martin, etc.). It is mentioned that, in spite of the differences, there are many commonalities due to the pluralistic character of the contemporary societies. The inclination of people to construct freely their religious preferences also plays important role. The author concludes that in order to estimate the social role of religion it is necessary to take into account its historical-cultural context. After all, the example of the USA and Western Europe proves the multiplicity of interdependence between modernity, secularity and religiosity in the contemporary world. 

Keywords: Secularity, pluralism, religious market, “bricolage”, multiple modernities. 

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