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Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)


— showed 10 articles from42

Political science

E-government: is "Reinventing the Government" Possible?

Trakhtenberg Anna

The paper shows that e-government rhetoric constantly comes into conflict with the practice of e-government implementation. In rhetorical terms, e-government is seen as a tool for REGO designed to provide the transition from rigid hierarchical structures of traditional public administration to integrated “one-stop government”. Information technologies make possible for authorities to do more with less and ensure citizen empowerment. This approach combines normative theory of democracy with technocratic utopia. But the real process of e-government implementation regularly runs into organizational resistance, and it is accompanied by numerous failures of costly projects. Conservative officials who do not want to work as expected are usually blamed for these failures. However, from the neo-institutionalist point of view, the failures are the result of public administration desire to confirm its legitimacy, at the same time ignoring the effectiveness of the proposed measures. It seems that new technologies implementation is a ritual that allows showing the administration modernity and social responsibility. It means that e- government may cause some incremental changes that could potentially generate cumulative effect. 

Keywords: e-government, new public management theory, neo-institutionalism, institutional isomorphism, institutional myth.

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Religion and Socities in Central and Eastern Europe after Collapse of Communism

Elensky Victor

The dilemma what is the essence of post-communist religious changes in Central and Eastern Europe, and in what way these changes give rise to social, political and cultural development of the region is discussed. The article reveals that post-communist societies are returning to the natural patterns of their own religious culture – patterns shaped through the centuries by their historical development, cultural heritage, distinctive socio-psychological features, and sense of belonging to a certain culture and civilization. The author argues that the sphere, in which religious changes in post-communist countries take place, is more at the institutional level than at the individual conversion’s realm. These changes are more evident in the field where religion turns into a serious factor of political and ethnical mobilization. This phenomenon has distinctly manifested itself in some episodes of the post-communist decade. 

Keywords: socio-religious changes, cultural heritage, post-communism, religiosity.

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Russian Megapolises: from industrial Centers towards Strategy of Multifunctional Agglomeration

Martyanov Victor , Rudenko Victor

The article analyses specific features and results of Soviet and Russian industri- alization in a comparison with dominating world trends. In addition, the possible ways of post-soviet transformation of Russian megacities are examined. The particular emphasis is put on the analyses of today’s situation. The article provides arguments in favor of the strategy of cohesion of large cities with satellite towns. The authors stress that the improvement of the weaknesses of the Russian cities conditioned by Soviet path of development is connected with the transformation of industrial centers into multifunctional agglomeration. The periphery of such agglomeration is able to become a place of enhanced development that will help to balance quality of life in city cores and suburbs, as well as it will promote infrastructural de-concentration and shifting resources to the most disadvantaged urban spaces. As a result, the network of Russian megacities will transform into geographically extended centre attracting resources from the world system and stimulating the growth and modernization of Russia.

Keywords: megapolis, mono-town, urbanization, agglomeration, diversification, urban network, urban development strategy.

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National Question in Bolshevik Party Documents: 1903-1923

Fadeicheva Marianna

The article observes Bolsheviks’ solution of the “national question”. The theoretical basis of Bolsheviks’ national policy is analyzed. The article presents main conclusions contained in Bolshevik Party texts dated by the first quarter of the XXth century. The national question was the matter of subordinate interest for Bolsheviks. The solution of the national question depended on the solution of question of the proletarian revolution and proletarian dictatorship. The right of nations to self-determination was interpreted in radical way, as the right of nations to separation and formation of theirs own states. Bolshevik party determined the necessity and possibility of the implementation of those right. Ethnic minorities and pre-capitalist peoples were not recognized as nations. National self-determination in its Bolsheviks’ comprehension had led to the foundation of the USSR and quasi-states within the USSR and the RSFSR. It was a new period in the development of socialist nations. The author argues that modern discourse of ethnic policy looks very much the same as Bolsheviks’ discourse. However, the archaic notions should not be used in contemporary conditions. 

  Keywords: assimilation, nation, “national question”, the nations’ right of self-determination, national republics, national-autonomous districts.

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Contributing Russian Identity: Principles of "Trans-culture" and "Critical Universality"

Akopov Sergey

The article focuses on the analysis of political and philosophical ideas of M.N. Ep- stein, and particularly on his concept of “trans-culture”. The purpose of the article is to explore ways to overcome the crisis of national identity by the principles of “trans-culture” and “critical universality”, developed by philosopher M.N. Epstein. The article examines such topics as criticism of totalitarian culture in the USSR, critique of multiculturalism, Russian regionalism, selfidentity of the Russian Diaspora in the USA, etc. The article is based on the texts of M.N. Epstein and on the interview taken by the author in 2011. The author concludes that the principles of “trans-culture” and “critical universality” developed by Epstein may be considered as a “bridge”, which leads from national-civilizational identity towards building global civil society.

Keywords: national identity crisis; trans-culture; critical universality, critical analysis of multiculturalism, M.N. Epstein.

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Model of Folk Fairy Tale in Russian Politics

Fan Irina

The article tests the hypothesis, according to which the model of Russian tale and the image of Ivan the Fool can help to determine the likely behavior of the majority of population in the situation of economic and political crisis in Russia. The article describes the invariant elements of tales and their counterparts in modern politics. With the help of logical structure of fairy tales as a sequence of functions of characters, the author analyzes the main participants of the political situation. The image of Ivan the Fool allows the author to reveal the origins of mentality, as well as values, motives and political settings of the majority of population, which influences the outcome of current political situation.

Keywords: political situation, authorities, opposition, political behavior, mentality, collective unconscious, community property, socialist property, revolution, reform, protest movement, people, Ivan the Fool.

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Main Ethno-Political Trends in Ural Region

Fadeicheva Marianna

The article argues a need to differentiate ethnic politics in Russia according to the characteristics of regions. Peculiarities of ethno-political situation in the Ural region are determined by historical, economic and political factors. Regional ethno-politics should be stratificated in accordance with the status and relations between ethnic groups. The article gives complete picture of inter-ethnic relations in the Ural region. Relationships between ethnic groups of indigenous population are described as relatively peaceful, competitive, indifferent and marginal. At the same time, the relationships between indigenous population and new immigrants appear to be more problematic, distanced and utilitarian. 

Keywords: indigenous population, migrants, region, ethnic groups, ethnic politics.

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Division of Positions according to Principle of Nationalities in Power Systems of Russian Regions: Current Stage

Podvintsev Oleg

The article analyses the practice of filling of positions in power by representa- tives of various national groups, which takes place in some subjects of the Russian Federation. In spite of the fact that this practice contradicts democratic principles of equal opportunities, it limits the growth of the inter-ethnic conflicts. The violation of current practices, which results from directive intervention of federal authorities, has already led to such conflicts. Now, the return of direct elections of heads of subjects of the Russian Federation generates certain risks. In this regard, the most vulnerable area in Ural-Volga region is Bashkortostan.

Keywords: ethno-national conflicts, distribution of power, direct elections, the relations between «center – regions».

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Migration of Muslims as Factor of Confessional Situation in Region (Based on Example of Ural-Volga Region)

Ryazanova Svetlana , Chernykh Aleksandr

The article considers main tendencies of confessional situation in the regions of the Russian Federation, which result from migration of ethnic Muslims. The analysis is based on the field research, which was carried out in Perm Krai. The authors define major factors, which influence migration processes; the regions, which deliver migrants; the ways newcomers use to gain their own niche in new socio-cultural space; the strategy of social behavior. The most significant aspects of changes in religious behavior and cult practice of local believers are highlighted. The potential of innovations and their introduction to local population and traditional culture is specified. The ways of adaptation of newcomers to public life are defined, such as: informing the community, interfaith activities, organization of psychological support service for migrants.

Keywords: migratory processes, Islam, Muslims, interaction of cultures.

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Problems of Transformation of "Ethnic Business" in Context of Integration Processes (the Case of Perm Region)

Vasilenko Yuri

The article is based on social-cultural approach to definition of “ethnic business”: it is a special business-structures, which have been founded by immigrants` own resources, and which produce goods and services with ethnic and cultural specifics; the latter is determinative. Transformations of ethnic business are considered to be the consequence of immigrants` ethnic and cultural identity transformations; dynamics of integration processes directly depend on them. The author argues that this approach – adopted from the Anglo-Saxon research literature – is the most valid for the analysis of ethnic business in Perm region. Specific character of integration processes, which take place in small, medium-sized and big ethnic business in Perm region, is reviewed; its ethnic-cultural variations are retraced: Christian (Armenian, in particular) and Mus- lim (Azerbaidjanian, Chechen and Tajic, in particular) ones. The author reveals the pattern: the higher is the level of ethnic business integration in receiving community – the slower are integra- tion processes, and their dynamics is less energetic. Several contradictions between ethnic business and the local powers are observed. 

Keywords: ethnic business, ethnic-cultural immigrant community, transformation, integration, Perm region.

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