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catalogue – 43669
Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)


— showed 11 articles from42


Social Forecasts of K. Marx

Koryakovtsev Andrey

The article is devoted to the prognostic potential of Karl Marx’s social theory. In particular, the author directs reader’s attention towards Marxist conception of proletarian revo- lution and modern process of socialization, which take place due to the development of high technologies. The article observes modern “consumer society” through the lenses of Marxian “global private ownership” social theory. Social potential of the Internet is analyzed in connection with the problem of direct social production raised by Karl Marx. The author concludes that Karl Marx was right in his prediction of the global proletarian revolution, although, his theory was not accurate in determining its particular results. Therefore, classical Marxism allows making prognosis about the future of social process. Such process in connection with growing socialization take place inside the capitalism and because of it. In so doing, classical Marxism gets shape as it is, especially in the case of proletarian revolution theory.  

Keywords: Marxism, social forecasts, working class, communism, revolutionary theory, L. Feuerbach, information technologies.

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Features of Knowledge in Non-classical Science

Bryanik Nadezda

Abstract: the article gives an epistemological analysis of non-classical science through comparison with the peculiarities of knowledge in the classical science. Subjectiveness of knowledge in the non-classical science is determined by the scientific reality. Varieties of scientific realities are constructed through certain methodologies and theories, and represent the unique fusion of objective and subjective circumstances and factors. In contrast to mechanic and descriptive position, non-classical science aims to clarify specifics of the examined objects and to disclose their essence.

Keywords: non-classical/classical science, the concreteness of knowledge, scientific reality (physical, social, historical, psychological, etc.), external manifestations / essence, specific regularities.

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Complementary Principle of N. Bohr and Problem of its Status

Makarov Andrey

The article is devoted to the problem of scientific and philosophical status of complementarity principlef. The author analyzes its explication by N. Bohr and its comprehension by scientists and epistemologists. It is shown that generally, the complementarity principle is a set of ideas, which allows comprehending of specific situation in quantum mechanics. Some of ideas – the role of language of classical physics, the role of macro-instrument, the integrity of scientific experiment, the integrity of micro-object – could be seen as general scientific and epistemological principles. The prohibition of ontologisation of quantum phenomenon, which necessarily leads to contradictions is considered as the semantic core of Bohr’s approach. However, the attempts of its generalization in science and philosophy were not successful. The complementarity postulate is viewed as methodological principle of foundations of quantum mechanics in its Copenhagen interpretation. 

Keywords: complementarity principle, phenomenon, ontologisation, contradiction, generalization, Copenhagen interpretation.

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Religion in USA and Western Europe: Exception or Rule?

Stepanova Elena

The article observes the differences in religious situation in the USA and Western Europe, as well as the concepts of American and European scholars of religion, which strive to interpret those differences (P. Berger, G. Davie, S. Bruce, N. Ammerman, J. Casanova, D. Martin, etc.). It is mentioned that, in spite of the differences, there are many commonalities due to the pluralistic character of the contemporary societies. The inclination of people to construct freely their religious preferences also plays important role. The author concludes that in order to estimate the social role of religion it is necessary to take into account its historical-cultural context. After all, the example of the USA and Western Europe proves the multiplicity of interdependence between modernity, secularity and religiosity in the contemporary world. 

Keywords: Secularity, pluralism, religious market, “bricolage”, multiple modernities. 

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Myth in its Correlation with Religious and Secular Types of Worldview

Ryazanova Svetlana

The article is devoted to the specifics of mythological type of worldview, which distinguishes it from religious and secular ways of perception of the world. The features of myth, which defines traditional and new mythological systems, are specified. Myth is considered as the actual cultural form based on qualitative characteristics of the world. The main characteristics of myth are understood as the entities, which have not been changed in historical process. The human being acts as the main subject of myth-genesis that influences specifics of mythological worldview. Features of religious worldview are marked out by the understanding of the person and the world as dualistic. The religion is considered both as consolidating and disintegrating factor of public life, which determines historicism of the worldview. The secular form of culture is defined as anthropocentric, making the greatest number of ways of life of the person in culture, and cultivating the idea of freedom in Western culture.

Keywords: myth, religion, secular culture, mythological systems, images of man in myth.

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Phenomenology of Religious Life in Early Works of M. Heidegger

Bezus Elena

The article contains the analysis of the “life world” of early Christians in works of M. Heidegger. Religious experience is described as the basis for the investigation of factual life. In order to expose the essence of factual life, the interconnection of the notions “Life” and “World” is analyzed, with the accent on the problem of “Private world”. The article presents hermeneutical reading of Pauline letters, the phenomenological description of his life “situation”, his attitude to the experience of conversion into Christianity, and to the early Christian’s community, to which he proclaims. The article describes the notion of Parousia; the temporal aspects of early Christian’s life experience are exposed in the eschatological perspective of Pauline’s letters. The difference between chronological (objective) and kairological (individual) comprehension of time is shown.  The time of early Christians is understood kairologically, namely, in its connection to substantial fulfillment. The author argues that factual life could only be defined by the manner of time experience; and that “individual” time is the basis for objective time. The conclusion is made that the understanding of specifics of Christian way of life clarifies the essence of factual life itself, which in turn could become the genuine basis for phenomenology.   

Keywords: phenomenology, factual life, world, early Christianity, the Second Coming, religiosity, historicity, temporality, time.

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Loneliness as Existentiale of Medieval Philosophy

Gagarin Anatoly

The concept of loneliness is regarded as the existentiale, which concentrates the problem of the meaning of life in the phenomenological aspect of the topics – in the “place” of I, surrounded by personal boundaries. Existential "loneliness" helps to understand authentic «I», to identify and organize essential value conditions of the self. The Medieval concept of loneliness reinterprets the experience of the ancient philosophical understanding of existential problems of loneliness and of the Old Testament in its relation to loneliness. Christianity puts on the first place the unique experience of Lonely God-Man – Jesus Christ, who pointed out the way to overcome loneliness, fear and death by the price of his own tragic experience. Each person who a priori looks for the answers to the "eternal" existential questions and comes to the discovery of Divine Truth, is proposed to follow his example and build the life from birth to death under the sign of religious experience of loneliness.
Keywords: loneliness, рhenomenological topics of Medieval man, existence, existentiale of human being, intention, identity, self, the meaning of life, wisdom, Wiseman, loneliness, death, fear, Medieval Philosophy, Augustine Aurelius, Abelard, Thomas a Kempis.

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Human Resources in Context of Social Transformations: Problems and Tendencies

Romanova Kira

The paper deals with problems of development of human resources in conditions of contemporary social transformations. The author makes distinction between the notions: “human resources” and “human capital”. She gives retrospective review of changes of labor market in Russia. In addition, she analyses the change of evaluative attitude toward “human resources” on different stages of the development of contemporary society. The article points out main tendencies in the development of human resources. The article announces the research of the conflict between Russian society and individuals in the light of innovative aspects of technologies of stabilization. The article considers some issues connected with the mechanism of state influence on implementation of strategies of innovative development of the man of labor in its near and far perspectives.

Keywords: human resources, human capital, transformation, value system, social status, quality of life.

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On Border of Private and Public: Social Reflection in Media Space

Cherepanova Tatiana

The article is devoted to the exploration of social reflection in the media space. The question about borders of socially meaningful discourse, which produces publicly essential conditions for social reflections is raised. Basic dichotomy of private and public in the frame of new media-format and the status of public talk in modern forms of mass communication is analyzed. The article describes both classic philosophical conceptions of private and public (H. Arendt), of  public sphere (J. Habermas), of individual and public (Z. Baumann), of the phenomenon of talk (M. Heidegger) and contemporary studies of communication in media space (N. Luhmann, M. Castells, N. Bolz, R. Sennett, etc.). The purpose of the article is to argue that classic models of publicity do not make sense in contemporary forms of social reflection. However, more importantly is that the new forms of social reflections can be represented only in a random discussion without connotation. Consumer continues to be the subject of media space, but not the creator of socially important ideas.

Keywords: communication, discussion, media space, private and public, social reflection.

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Between Something and "Almost Nothing"

Malyshev Mikhail

The article describes the essence of aphoristics in terms of protest against the domi- nant influence of popular stereotypes embedded in everyday consciousness. An aphorism is defined as a play of thought and irony. The author shows that unlike the logical discourse, the aim of aphorism is not to express the truth in its possible entirety, but to highlight one of its facets or give it a new shade of meaning. The article provides examples of the author’s aphorisms, which are all based on the idea of irony. 

Keywords: Aphoristics, aphorism, aphorist, maxim, irony. 

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Political science

Early J. Donoso Cortes (1820-1848): Making a Traditionalist

Vasilenko Yuri

The article analyzes two periods in the evolution of ideas and values of the out- standing Spanish traditionalist Donoso Cortes`: the progressist (1820-1836) and the liberal- conservative (1836-1848) ones. Being guided by the methodological lines of the Spanish histori- an-traditionalist M. Menendez-y-Pelayo and the German historian–positivist E. Schramm, the author offers some arguments in honor of Donoso`s traditionalist interpretation of political-ideological identity as the basis for the analysis of his ideas, views and values in the early (pre-traditionalist) years. In order to achieve the aim, the author divides between the Donoso`s traditionalist philosophical world-view and the Donoso`s progressist and liberal-conservative political-ideological rhetoric. In the author’s opinion, the former is the basis for the latter. By interpreting early Donoso as traditionalist, the author is being able to demonstrate the complex and contradictory character of Spanish traditionalists` search for ideology and values in the conditions of the coming New – liberal and bourgeois – Order. 

Keywords: Donoso Cortes, political-ideological identity, political ideology, progressism, liberal conservatism, traditionalism, Spain.

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