16 (4)
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2016
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Philosophy

TO DISCUSSION ON GENESIS OF ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY

Matveychev, Oleg

Abstract: The article is a historiographical overview of the main concepts of the genesis of ancient Greek philosophy appeared in the XVIII–XX centuries. The author argues that Greek philosophy was not perceived as an independent, peculiar phenomenon until the XVIII century; therefore, the question of the origins and genesis could not be formulated. “Turning to the Greeks” in the history of philosophy comes from D. Tiedemann, the author of “Zeitgeist”concept. Hegel’s philosophical system and the manifestation of the principle of historicism in its most complete form had a huge impact on the subsequent development of philosophical thought. Hegel devotes Greek philosophy special place among other stages of the development of the Absolute Spirit; he argues that ancient Greek philosophy was the beginning of philosophy in its proper sense. E. Zeller radicalized Hegelian idea and entered into controversy with Orientalism, which dominated in the beginning and in the middle of the XIX century. Zeller denied any external influence on early Greek philosophy. Simultaneously, Zeller questioned Hegelian apriorism. In fact, the subsequent history of philosophy was developed in polemics either with Hegel or with Zeller. There are several conflicting approaches to the problem of the origin of ancient Greek philosophy in the historical and philosophical doctrines of the XIX–XX century. Methodologically, Hegel’s and his followers’ apriorism opposed Zeller’s empiricism. J. Burckhardt, W. Windelband, T. Gompertz, H. Diels were close to this empiricism. The discussion between the adherents of mytho-genic concept (F.M. Cornford, A. Weber, G. Thomson) and epistemo-genic concept (W. Windelband, T. Gompertz, J. Burnet, H. Diels) was about continuity between philosophy and previous forms of consciousness. In addition, there were thinkers who attempted to overcome extremes of two positions (W.К.С. Guthrie, J.-P. Vernant). The dispute between supporters of autochthonous hypothesis (F. Hölderlin, Hegel, E. Zeller, J. Burnet) and Oriental hypothesis (F. Schleiermacher, A. Gladish, A. Röth, P. Tannery, U. Hölscher, G.S. Kirk, J.Е. Raven, W.К.С. Guthrie, M.L. West, W. Burkert) was about internal and external sources of early Greek philosophy. In one form or another, the same discussions continue in our time. In order to enter into a genuine, deep essence of contemporary debates, which is not always recognized by the disputants, it is necessary to know well their origins and the context of occurrenceKeywords: natural-language-ofdialectical-philosophy; formal-axiological-semantics; evaluation-functional-meaning; evaluation-variable; evaluation-function; compositionality.
Keywords: philosophy; history of philosophy; historiography of ancient philosophy; mythology; religion; science; Ancient Greece; genesis of philosophy.

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REALITY GENERATOR: INFORMATION AND MECHANISMS OF SELF-ORGANIZATION

Podoprigora, Alexander

Abstract: The article integrates the existent approaches to the definition of the notion of “information”, and specifies a task of elaborating conceptual presentation of the selfconsistent content of this notion, as well as the need for more precise definition of its place in the system of philosophical knowledge. Informational aspect lying at the base of any physical, biological or social process becomes apparent now; this fact gives rise to a disciplinary limitation and tautologies in its interpretations. Information as such is identified with one or other special findings, data, knowledge relating to processes and phenomena; information often presents itself as a mere function of human consciousness and a component of communication. In other instances, it is the attributive nature of this category that is solely emphasized, whereas its content is reduced to various properties of matter, substance and psychophysical phenomena. It is a common practice to consider information as a message about something, which constitutes a fact, an event of reality distinctive from the message itself. Another extremity of approaches consists in considering information as having a status of substance and principium of existence. The article emphasizes the relevancy of the new philosophical interpretation of the nature of information in the context of the synergetic paradigm, which integrates modern conceptualizations of various scientific disciplines, and counterbalances traditional antitheses of matter – spirit, subject – object. Definition of information is proposed herein based on the adaptation of approaches of C.L. Shannon and N. Wiener, the use of Everett’s interpretation and the theory of dynamic systems: information is universal probabilistic
process of generating structures of reality within the framework of intersystem interaction in conditions of the fundamental indetermination of existence.
Keywords: information, structure, reality, self-organization, dynamic systems, indetermination, simulation, reflection, probability.

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Political science

PUBLIC COUNCILS IN THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONS

Dyakova, Elena

Abstract: The article examines the formation of the legal framework of public councils that operate in the public administration system. Particular attention is paid to the process of interaction between public councils and public chambers as an advisory and consultative bodies, inscribed in the public administration system. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of regional public chambers and public councils’ formation on both federal and regional level is undertaken (on the example of the regions in the Ural Federal District). It is shown that the federal innovations aimed at enhancing self-sufficiency of public councils and their independence from the public administration are poorly reflected on the regional level. Regional public chambers have relatively small influence on the formation of public councils. The regional legislation in terms of interaction between public chambers and public councils needs to be brought into line with federal trends.
Keywords: public council, public chamber, civic control, civil society, legal framework

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LOCAL FACTORS OF ELECTORAL DEVIATIONS IN URAL REGIONS IN ELECTIONS 18.09.2016

Kovin, Vitaliy

Abstract: This article examines the reasons for some cases of significant deviations in political parties’ results of 2016 elections in three regions of the Urals: Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions. Various manifestations of “local identity” are seen to be a key factor influencing the electoral preferences of the voters. In a number of cases, these preferences differ significantly from the averages. Electoral behavior of Russian voters is known as changeable and difficult to relate to any classic theories. Motives for their participation and non-participation in elections, “instruments” that they use to inform their choice can significantly differ from one electoral campaign to another, and even within one electoral campaign. During national and regional elections, the biggest majority of “electoral deviations”, which have a local origin, is found on a local level, i.e., on the level of local settlement outside big cities. This article examines three particular cases of three Ural cities during the 2016 election when the results of voting were determined by local issues. It is found that local motives for electoral preferences include supporting nominated “fellow countryman”; supporting local politician (a district head, a mayor or an MP) when they have been promoted to a higher executive position; attracting attention to an urgent problem (e.g. local factory crisis). This article suggests that these local factors, especially voting for a “fellow countryman”, are the manifestation of the sense of the local community and the traditionalist culture of some voters, and are
temporary and situational in their nature.

Keywords: elections, electoral preferences, local community, local identity, fellow countryman.

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POLITICAL ELITE OF OREL REGION: PROBLEMS OF INCORPORATION

Skiperskikh, Alexander

Abstract: In this article, we investigate features of the incorporation into the political elite in the Orel region. From the point of view of the author, specificity of Orel`s case lies in the fact that until now the processes of incorporation into the regional political class are managed by representatives of the old nomenklatura of Orel region, who were put into power by ex-governor Egor Stroev. The distribution of power in the Orel region is almost entirely dependent on the former governor. In the modern Russia, it is not an exclusion. The continuity of the reproduction of political elites characterizes Russia at the federal level, and it is spread over the practice of incorporation of regional political elites as well. From the point of view of the author, Egor Stroyev`s factor is decisive in
the practice of political legitimation of new governors of the Orel region – Aleksander Kozlov and Vadim Potomsky. Despite the differences in transmitting into the Orel region, it is non-disputable that at one time both of them represented the powerful circles of federal groups in the field; they had to solve problems on their own. Eventually, the need of creating the own team turns into a certain problem due to a shortage of loyal and professional bureaucracy. To a certain degree, limited staff resources explains the desire of both governors to get Egor Stroev’s support and efficiently combine local people and «vikings» in the new political class of the region. The consensus between the «old» and the «new» elite is the optimal model of the dialogue. However, the renewal of the political elite of the Orel region may reduce the value of the factor of Egor Stroev; it can bring some uncertainty into the development of the political elites and indicate difficult processes within the elite community. Further reproduction of the political elite in the Orel region will need some kind of authority and popular actors. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that the search for such a figure will have positive results.
Keywords: power, governor, legitimation, Orel region, political elite.

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Law

METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONING OF VALUE-NORMATIVE SYSTEM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF LAW)

Ponomaryov, Aleksey

Abstract: The article discusses the development of modern legal axiology, which actualizes an appeal to philosophical and axiological concepts in their historical dynamics. The solution of the axiological issues in the field of law requires the introduction of the differences of law as value and law as its normative expression. The consideration of the normative nature of law involves the analysis of value and normative aspects of social systems, understanding the relationship of values and activities of the social subject, its objectification in the value-normative system, and the study of values as a form of consciousness. Projection of the modern axiological experience on issues of legal axiology allows drawing the following conclusions related to the law: law as a social system serves as the institutional value, fixing sample actions. At the same time, law as an element of subject’s orientation in the social world, of one’s action motivation, and of forming the image of one’s “I” is the social value. In the structure of law, the objectified aspect, which gives a semiotic character to the law, is selected, as well as the subjected aspect perceived by the social activity agent as a necessity and the scale of subjective evaluation, by means of which law is expressed in the value relation of the subject. In relation to the society as a subject, the law must be regarded as a self-representation of this society. Here the objectified aspect of the law is implemented as a set of legal norms. Subjected aspect of the law appears as a set of legal practices on different levels and their reflection in the form of trivial and theoretical consciousness. The main functions of law should be referred to forming the subjectivity of the subject of social activities and acting as a way
of reflection of society.
Keywords: axiology; law axiology; value; evaluation; rule; law; representation; social communication; system of values; individual consciousness; social consciousness.

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FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF PARLIAMENTARY CONTROL AND ISSUES OF IMPROVEMENT OF ITS LEGAL MECHANISMS IN KAZAKHSTAN

Tlembaeva, Zhanna

Abstract: The article observes questions of the organization of parliamentary oversight and improving the mechanism of parliamentary control in Kazakhstan. The features of the basic model of parliamentary control in the practice of state power of modern states are indicated. We analyze the constitutional procedures relating to the implementation of the control function of the Parliament. In the article, significant place is devoted to the analysis of control functions of the Parliament by the Government. The attention is payed to parliamentary investigation as the form of parliamentary oversight. Based on the study, the author concludes about the necessity of the development of legal provisions in the organization of parliamentary control, including parliamentary investigation. Keywords: Republic of Kazakhstan; parliament; government; parliamentary control, form of parliamentary control; inquiry; parliamentary hour; parliamentary inquiry.

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