19 (2)
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2019
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Philosophy

Social Status and Ethical Problems of Non-classical Science

Bryanik, Nadezda

The article discusses the transformation of social characteristics of non-classical science in comparison with the social status of classical science. The author shows that the practical usage of scientific knowledge requires the implementation of technological form; and this applies to all major sub-systems of science. Technical sciences that invent ways of application of the laws of nature to different spheres of human activity rapidly develops exactly in non-classical period. Today, the practical usage of science is expanded to a planetary scale. Distinguishing feature of the worldview function of non-classical science is related to the displacement of speculative natural-philosophical constructions and ideas, when the representation of the fundamental properties of the world itself becomes a scientific picture of this world; and the scientific worldview begins to be introduced in the school system. Today one could observe politicization of science. Science takes on features of a social institution, which essentially requires autonomy. However, in reality modern science becomes a tool of manipulation in both foreign and domestic policy. The through science to affect the fate of all humankind opportunity makes scientists to face ethical problems arising from situations of choosing between good and evil. Various mechanisms for international cooperation quickly arose in the first half of the 20-th century. The social status of the human agent of science changes significantly.

 Keywords: cclassical/non-classical science, ethics of science, politization of science, forms of social institutionalization of science.

 

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Dynamic Approach to Deontic Logic: Semantics of Normative Operators

Kislov, Alexey

The paper presents the semantics of deontic logic, which is implemented on the basis on propositional dynamic logic. The standard version is a relational semantics (J.-J. Ch. Meyer), which uses the semantic idea of A. Anderson – the definition of normative operators (“obligatory”, “forbidden” and “permitted”) by means of propositional constant “sanction”. The standard semantics of multimodal way (without the mutual definability of deontic modalities) is complemented by “strict” operators (the concept of “degree of responsibility” is discussed), then – “pragmatic” operators (through propositional constant of S. Kanger “positive sanction”). The opportunity to refuse from total reduction of deontic logic to dynamic logic and to semantically questionable constants “sanction” and “positive sanction” is offered. An autonomous intensional semantics of deontic operators, which is relative regarding the rating system, is constructed. The proposed semantics being close to the “constant” version retains the ability to express a class of deontic operators “in the strict sense” and combines standard and pragmatic interpretation of deontic operators. However in our opinion, the most important fact is that “non-reductionist” multimodal version of deontic semantics is more than natural.

Keywords: deontic logic, propositional dynamic logic, logical semantics, normative operators, sanction, degree of responsibility, ratings system.

 

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Anti-Capitalist Revolution of Industrial Epoch^ Problem of Natural-Historic Limits According to Marxist Tradition

Koryakovtsev, Andrey

The first half of the twentieth century was the time of wide-ranged anti-capitalist (socialist or communist) movements. Industrial working class was their main driving force, and Marxism was one of influential ideological source. These movements had different empirical implementation, which were determined by specific social conditions of the particular country. Sometimes, these movements appeared in the form of acute political conflict (political revolution); in other times – in the form of economic and politic reforms. The totality of those movements could be defined as the worldwide social revolution, which resulted in change of fundamental social institutions and phenomenon: property, states, social psychology, and social relations. However, with regard to market and private property, the change was unfinished; in other words, anti-capitalist revolution unfinished by its nature. The unfinished nature directly or indirectly revealed itself in the Soviet society, and in Keynesian economics of the Western countries. The author considers the causes of this incompleteness. According to the author's opinion, they are rooted in the social nature of industrial working class. In its turn, the preconditions of its limited social opportunities are the industrial division of labor, and the alienated character of labor activity. 

Keywords: anti-capitalistic revolution, Soviet society, Keynesianism, neo-liberalism, K. Marx, Marxism, Lenin, Bernstein, division of labor, political alienation of labor, working class.

 

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Political science

60 Theses on Language of Political Science

Startsev, Yaroslav

The article is an attempt to define the list of reasons for the formation of the language(s) of political science, which meets the standard requirements for artificial languages, taking into account the specificity of political science disciplines. It is proposed to solve the problem of isolated paradigmal dialects, which are associated with individual objects of research and do not interact with each other, with the help of inter-paradigmal interpretation, search for functional equivalents, metaphorization and integration of subject areas of terminology and language structures, inherent by other areas. Criticism of the modern language of political science is accompanied by an analysis of the concept of power as a source for the formation of political universal grammatical categories. Description of power relations is made through the concept of object, subject and procedures, which are characterized by different, usually alternative scenarios of behavior, which form more or less harmonious combinations. Scenarios themselves are analyzed through the concept of the behavioral algorithm and logic of political behavior. The system of categories proposed in the article can be used as a tool for description and interpretation of any power configuration, retaining the ability to broadcast the studied issues into different paradigms.

 

Keywords: methods of political science, theory of science, interpretation methods, theory of political power.

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Spanish Sector of Real Estate and Russia

Pablo S. Blesa Aledo , Oleynikova, Regina

The authors analyze economic crisis in Spain, which has influenced Spanish real estate sector very negatively, and give recommendations how to overcome it. Through analyzing the data of the Spanish-Russian relations, the authors reveal many potential possibilities for both parties in this sector. Special attention is given to problems of Russian tourism in Spain: the authors demonstrate some advantages of Spain as tourist direction, and at the same time indicate many complex political problems, which prevent its development. In this regard, the foremost problem is Spanish restrictive politics, but also an absence of complete information about Spanish tourist possibilities for Russia, and limited air communication between two countries. The authors conclude that Russians could invest in Spanish economics by buying the property in Spain.

 

Keywords: economic crisis, sector of real estate, investments, Spain, Russia.

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Law

Regional Legislation in Russia: Tendencies of Development and Level of Performing

Kazantsev, Mikhail

The article describes two important aspects of regional legislation (legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation): tendencies of development and level of performing. The periodization of regional legislation development is offered: formative period (December 25, 1993 – August 1, 2000); period of stabilization (August 1, 2000–2008); period of optimization of regional legislation (2009 – to the present day). Characteristics of these periods are given; tendencies of establishing of regional legislation including negative ones and their reasons are defined. Indicators of rejecting the federative foundations in law making, as well as in federalism in general, are determined. The author concludes that regional legislation has to be developed on the way of optimizing the correlation between regional and federal legislation, and between the system of municipal legal acts, as well as on the way of improving the system of regional legislation and its hierarchic and objective structure. The systemization of regional legislation has to be the main direction of the development of regional legislation. The system of indicators (criteria) of the quality of regional legislation (and legislation in general) is produced. The author formulates the definition of regulatory legal act as the combination of its attributes (characteristics). The factors, which influence the level of the performing of regional legislation, are identified and estimated.

Keywords: regional legislation (legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation), tendencies of regional legislation development, periodization of development of  regional legislation, quality of regional legislation, quality indicators of regulatory legal act and legislation, level of performing of regional legislation, disadvantages of regional legislation.

 

 

 

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Ombudsman Contributing to Business Rights Protection: World Experience and Perspectives of Development

Emikh, Valentina

The article summarizes world experience of applying the concept of ombudsman to social relations, which involve entrepreneurs. The author analyses legal status of business ombudsmen (using the example of USA, Australia, and Russia), taxpayers’ ombudsmen (using the example of Georgia, Canada, USA, and Pakistan) and procurement ombudsmen (using the example of Canada) among public sector ombudsmen and self-regulatory industry-based ombudsmen, and organizational ombudsmen among private sector ombudsmen. The main tendencies of legal regulation of these ombudsmen status are determined. The author defines the perspectives of their development. The first one is variability of their terms of competence depending on social and political needs of the state. The second one is expanding of exercising the ombudsman conception to private relations purposed on alternative dispute resolution, and supporting such ombudsmen by state through their approval as alternative dispute resolution schemes. The third one is setting up mediation functions to ombudsmen contributing to business rights protection, and using the informal procedures of dispute resolution in their activity. The forth one is the search for additional guarantees of ombudsmen independence, including involvement of publicity into their activity.

Keywords: business ombudsmen, taxpayers’ ombudsmen, procurement ombudsman, self-regulatory industry-based ombudsmen, alternative dispute resolution, business rights protection.

 

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