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2018
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RESEARCH
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Philosophy

Binary Operations "s' s-being-in-w" and "s's-being-out-of-w" in Two-Valued Algebra of Metaphysics as Formal Axiology: Using these Operations in Discrete Mathmatical Models of Philosophy

Lobovikov, Vladimir

Two additional binary operations are introduced in two-valued algebra of metaphysics as formal axiology, namely, the operationsS’s-being-in-W” and S’s-being-out-of-W” determined by two evaluation-variables S and W. Precise tabular definitions of the evaluation-functional sense of the introduced binary operations are submitted. The paper submits a precise definition of the relation of formal-axiological equivalence in the metaphysics algebra and also definitions of notions: “formal-axiological contradiction”; “law of metaphysics” in this algebra. By means of the given definitions within the framework of the constructed elementary discrete mathematical model of metaphysics, the author generates systems of equations and laws, which are explications of the philosophical concepts: “being-of-thing-in-itself”; “being-of-thing-as-such”; “being-in-world”; “being-in”; “being-in-space”; “being-in-time”. In particular, at the level of the model, it is demonstrated that the formal-axiological equivalence-relation of the evaluation-functions “being-of-thing-in-itself” and “being-of-thing-as-such” does not exist; hence, the two are substantially different ones.

 

Keywords: S’s-being-in-W; being-of-thing-in-itself; being-in-space; being-in-time; S’s-being-out-of-W; formal-axiology; algebra-of-metaphysics; evaluation-variable; evaluation-function; discrete-mathematical-model.

 

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Immanent Unfolding of Social Historicity

Kondrashov, Pyotr , Lubutin, Konstantin

There are many studies devoted to the analysis of materialistic understanding of history. Although the topic of these studies is a question of historical process, nevertheless, they do not contain the definition of the historicity. The article is the attempt to explicate phenomenon of historicity of social being in K. Marx's philosophy. The authors show that social historicity is the immanent quality (modus) of human activity. The implementation of the Praxis leads to the emergence of the objective world where inter-subjectivity and sociality of human being-in-the-world takes place. The transformation of the artificial world for satisfaction of needs determines changes in social and spiritual structures. Historicity is those changes taken in temporal unity. Social historicity (as it is implicitly understood by Marx) is the uniformal temporal coherent process where the person through Praxis transforms the actual social-objective world (the present); creates something new, which keeps «traces» of the conditions of previous lives (the past); and through practical inclusion into the system of immanent relations of the actual world generates attitudes, structures, subject matters, properties, forms of activity, ideas, demands, and situations, which previously did not exist (the future).

Keywords: Marx's philosophy, Praxis, historicity of social being, artificial world, sociality, temporality.

 

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Metamorphosis of Philosophical Ideas in Science

Makarov, Andrey

The article focuses on the forms and conditions, which characterize incorporation of the philosophical ideas into science. The author describes the role of metaphor in transporting of concepts from one sphere of knowledge into another, and examines the ways of the inversion of concepts and ideas. The mostly important conditions of “borrowing” of “alien” concepts’ are revealed. First it is argued, , that they can be introduced only on their own intra-scientific ground. Second, they are redesigned in such a way that new ideal objects may enter the system of constructs, while the concepts may comply with an established conceptual system of science in a consistent way. Third, they have to operate – namely, they have to explain and predict facts of a certain experimental area. The article also examines the criteria according to which the adoption of new ideas into science could be estimated as relatively completed. This process is analyzed on the example of the transformation of ancient Greek atomism from the natural-philosophical concept into scientific one. The main stages of these changes, as well as the historical ties between philosophical and scientific atomism, are considered.

Keywords: inversion of ideas, metaphor, natural-philosophical atomism, scientific atomism, philosophical foundations of science, internal foundations of science, discontinuity and continuity.

 

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Political science

Global versus National: E-government as Element of Chinese Administrative Reform

Dyakova, Elena

The article discusses the problem of interaction between global administrative trends and national administrative cultural tradition during the e-government transition in China. Selection of China, despite its low position in the UN e-government ranking (78 in 2012) is made due to the fact that today the country is seen as the model of post-socialist and post-colonial sustainable development. E-government is seen in China as an instrument of control over subordinate authorities, as well as an additional instrument of control from below through the citizen’s appeals. PRC system is quite logical in nature and corresponds to the Chinese administrative tradition of strong state with low level of alienation of citizens from the government. Popular management trends are included into the existing system of management priorities aimed on supporting sustainable economic development and political stability. China's experience of e-government transition shows, on the one hand, the importance of studying the social and cultural contexts, in which it takes place; on the other hand, in shows the need to take into account the global nature of reforms (and the corresponding rhetoric).

Keywords: e-government, administrative reform, administrative cultural traditions, cross-societal organizational emulation.

 

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Contemporary Practice of Lobbying in USA

Belousov, Alexander

The article observes lobbying practices in the USA and presentsthe analysis of official data of the financing of lobbying: the amount of lobbying spending, the amount of the largest lobbying clients spending, and the incomes of the highly paid lobbyists. Brief history of lobbying is presented. Itshows that the bribing of  lawmakers was a common practice before regulation of lobbying was introduced, and describes the tendency of complicating of lobbying practices in the second half of the 20th century. The article pays particular attention to the corporate lobbying. Quantitative analysis of the data proves the rise of corporate lobbying in the United States in last 30 years. Another observed trend is the link between the rise of parliamentary hearings and the growth of representation campaigns in particular sectors of US economy. The basic strategy of corporate lobbying is so-called member-to-member lobbying. The article considers the phenomenon of revolving door’(when former congressional representatives and bureaucrats are hired by lobbyist firms) as part of corporate lobbying. The methods of grassroots lobbying and astroturf are also regarded. The article contains comparative analysis of lobbying in the US and EU.

Keywords: lobbying, USA, member-to-member lobbying, grassroots lobbying, astroturf, revolving door.

 

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"Heroic Pantheon" and Contradictions of Regional Identity in Bashkortostan

Bederson, Vsevolod

Bashkortostan is a very complicated case of the development of regional community on the post-imperial stage in contemporary Russia. Confrontation within Bashkortostan regional community takes place not only on the level of particular political and economic, political and human, etc., decisions, but also in the «margins» of struggle for specific version of regional identity. The article analyzes the structure of «heroic Pantheon» as the product of straightforward identity policy of Bashkortostan regional elite. Controversies of symbolic, ethnical and political features of regional identity are viewed through the analysis of the place and significance of Bashkir «cultural heroes» and their semantic and functional layers (C. Yulayev, K. Arslanov, H. Validi). In addition, the author considers political and ethnic conflicts aroused around the «Pantheon» and associated with heterogeneity of the ethnical composition of population of the Republic. The article offers recommendations concerning relaxing political and symbolic contradictions in the regional community, and observed the instrumental usage of «cultural hero» as identifier of symbolic space and identity in other Russian regions.

Keywords: Regional identity, cultural hero, «heroic Pantheon», identity policy. 

 

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Law

New Institutes of Civil Participation in Russia as National Variant of Delegative Democracy

Filippova, Natalya

The article investigates preconditions of formation and features of legislative regulation of the system of institutes of civil participation in implementation of powers of the bodies of public (state) power in Russia. From 2003 until 2013, the list of such institutes significantly expanded at the expense of legalization of advisory referenda, advisory public councils, public examinations of regulations, public initiatives and other institutes. In modern constitutional law science, they are considered as different from institutes of direct democracy. Unlike the standard point of view, evolution of institutes of civil participation is analyzed in a context of the competition of two traditions of the organization of public (state) power: republican and democratic. It is proved that domination of democratic tradition of understanding of law, developed in Russia at the turn of XIX–XX centuries, still remains, and has noticeable deforming impact on the contents and practice of application of norms of the Russian constitutional law. Therefore, the institutes of civil participation, which was developed in Russia at the turn of 2010–2020th, characterize the Russian state not as the republic, but as new version of delegative democracy. They are formed as alternative to representative bodies of power, and provide legitimization of regulations as well as decisions and actions of executive authorities, which independent of these bodies.

Keywords: participation of citizens in implementation of public (state) power, republic, delegative democracy, advisory public council, public examination, public initiative.

 

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Contemporary Implementation Models of Constitution and Principles of Direct Action of Constitution

Antonenko, Valeriia

The paper offers doctrinal analysis of the effectiveness of implementation models of the constitution, taking into account the existing constitutional theory and practice. The author defines the concept of the «implementation model of the constitution», marks out the criteria for definition of the models and suggests five implementation models of the constitution: model of formal implementation, model of mediated implementation, model of limited implementation, model of direct implementation, model of living implementation. The author formulates advantages and peculiarities of each model and considers those models and their continuous development as part of constitutional process. In addition, the article analyzes factors, which define the choice of particular model in concrete legal relationship and the reasons for the normative fixing of the model of direct implementation of constitution. The author concludes that direct action of the constitution as integral principle of the implementation of constitution resulted from its substantial qualities has attributive value.

Keywords: constitution, implementation of constitution, implementation model, direct action, constitutionalism.

 

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