19 (2)
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2019
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catalogue – 43669
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Introduction

Philosophy

Value Aspects of Scientific Cognition and Knowledge

Miroshnikov, Yuri

The paper demonstrates that the value aspects of science are the subject matter of epistemology, which is currently understood as philosophy of scientific consciousness. The value aspects of science are considered in terms of different structural aspects of science as social and cultural phenomenon, in general, and as activity, in particular. Activity is considered as main principle of understanding of scientific cognition. Firstly, the paper investigates the value aspects of science stemming from its subject. Then, the value aspects of motivation, organization and behavior strategies in scientific activity are analyzed. The author shows that the value content of science is generally reflected in hierarchical structure of scientific activity as the aspect of relations of theoretical and empirical levels of cognition. Such subjects of scientific cognition as theoreticians and practitioners are considered. The attention is drawn to the correlation between fundamental and applied knowledge, to how it has evolved throughout the history of science.  The author examines the value aspects of scientific knowledge and proves that trueness is the fundamental value of science.

Keywords: value aspects of science, axiology of science, value aspects of subject matter of science, value aspects of motivation, organization and behavior strategies of scientific activity, value aspects of scientific knowledge, trueness as fundamental value of science.

 

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Categorial Apparatus of Religious Studies: Limits, Principles, Paradigms

Ryazanova, Svetlana

The article is devoted to the main tendencies in contemporary religious studies and to the principles of their coexistence with other humanitarian disciplines including the indication of common and particular features of this process. The cultural and civilization factors, which influence formation, self-determination and development of religious studies, are considered. The most important problems of the genesis and the evolution of categories, which carry out demarcation functions for philosophy of religion and related disciplines, are defined. A number of central categories, which structure the space of discipline and have impact over the functioning of related humanitarian subjects – religion,  myth, new religiousness, freedom of worship – is allocated. Particular attention is paid to semantic basis of the formation of categories, as well as to principles of classification of definitions and limits of interpretation of used categories and terms. Admissible ways of diminishing the shortage of universal definitions in religious studies are defined: expansion of research field; change of research priorities; use of inter-disciplinarily approach; pragmatism in selection of categories; situational approach in selection of basic definitions.

Keywords: religion, myth, religious studies, paradigm, scientific approach.

 

 

 

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Social Reality of Russia: Problems and Trends of Modernization

Romanova, Kira

The article deals with the modernization of Russian society understood as the creation of politically stable and democratic state, high-tech economy and social sphere. Based on sociological research, the author assesses their context, analyzes socio-cultural, political, economic, aspects of society, which experience social and cultural trauma, and often manifest themselves as simulacra. Structural deformation of domestic economy towards non-productive employment is accompanied by corresponding change of basic valuesof the society, leading to depreciation of human productive labor. The author defines the need for the appearance of leading actors (political actors) associated with productive labor that provides national treasure of Russia. They can determine genuine ideological objectives, methods, technological upgrades, and almost lead driving forces of modernization. The author tries to identify main problems of positive economic and political development of Russia and the regions, especially reactions of people and the government towards crisis and post-crisis situation, as well as perspectives of modernization of Russia's socio-economic and political systems.

Keywords: economic growth model, simulacrum, socio-cultural trauma, structural deformation of economy, subject of modernization.

 

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Political science

Political Participation in Russia: Exclusion under "Camouflage" of Inclusion

Fan, Irina

The article observesthe reasons of low level of political participation of citizens in modern Russia. The author attributes these reasons to principles and mechanisms of political inclusion/exclusion, which form the basis of the functioning of political system. There is a lack of studies of the concepts of inclusion and exclusion in Russian political science. In Western political science, these notions are presented in theory of social integration and differentiation of N. Luhmann, theory of citizenship of T.Ch. Marshall, structural-functional analysis of T. Parsons, world-systems analysis of L.Wallerstein. The author is convinced that Russia has its own model of political inclusion/exclusion, which affects all spheres of society. The article explores principles and mechanisms of political exclusion of ordinary citizens, public associations, political parties, as well as examines political opposition as system of political participation. The author concludes that current political regime explores political exclusion towards its own citizens despite the institute of citizenship and other formal democratic political institutions. It is done on the basis of the "symbiosis" of formal and informal institutions through a variety of practices and technologies that often have non-political character, which is typical for Russian political system. Formal political institutions act as "camouflage" and instruments of informal institutions, which are used selectively.

Keywords:political participation, political inclusion, political exclusion, political engagement, political institutions, formal and informal political institutions, political regime.

 

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Arctic Reconsidered: Dynamics of Russia's Priorities

Martyanov, Victor

The article reviews the transformation of Russia’s strategy towards Arctic in the context of global rethinking of the potential of Arctic macro-region. General legal and political principles of the exploration of Arctic are analyzed, with particular interest towards its geopolitical position. Based on the content analysis of Russian press, leading forces and agents are defined, as well as aims and problems of the exploration of Russian Arctic. The dynamics of Russia’s politics towards Arctic are studied. It is argued that the aim of Russia’s politics is symbolical location of Arctic «nearer» to Russia. At the same time, it is shown that contemporary exploration of Arctic remains mostly rhetorical. Moreover, the former Soviet heroic symbols of Arctic exploration dominate over the discourse (polar explorer, North Pole, Arctic Passage, drifting wintering, etc). Based on the content of Rossiiskaya gazeta (1991–2012), it is shown that the core discourse remains the same, and fluctuations of its elements have just relative significance, depending on current Russian and global political agenda. Additional analysis of official projects of Arctic exploration demonstrates their controversial character and lack of strategic envision of development of the region. It is argued that the revaluation of Russia’s priorities towards Arctic, which are relevant to the international legal regime of the region and the potential of various forms of cooperative participation of its development, is essential.

Keywords: Arctic, symbolic policy, imagined geography, polar regions, expansion, content analysis, Rossiiskaya gazeta.

 

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M.J. Quintana and "Liberal Partiotism" in XIXth Century Spain

Vasilenko, Yuri

In the XIXth century Spain, an originally Anglo-Saxon concept of «liberal patriotism» was shaped by the contradictory combination of liberal and conservative political-ideological elements. The similar situation is observed now in Russia. The article analyses the first phase of the genesis of «liberal patriotic» ideology as the variation of liberal conservatism, using the ideas, views and values of the outstanding Spanish poet J.M. Quintana. The basic elements of liberal and traditionalist ideologies are revealed in Quintana`s worldview; his ideas, views and values are analyzed in the frame of different periods of his mental and political evolution in the context of the emerging Spanish liberal conservatism; the contradictions of his political practice are demonstrated. The particular focus is made on the defeat of Quintana as political actor during the War for Independence and its conversion into the civil war between the supporters of patriotic ideals (traditionalists) and the supporters of liberty ideals (liberals).

Keywords: liberal patriotism, political ideology, Spain, XIXth century, Quintana.

 

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Concept of Soft Power as Subject of Study of Modern Political Science and Theoretical Basis for Foreign Policy Strategy

Kovaljova, Daria

The article investigates the concept of «soft power» in the context of contemporary political science and practice of international relations. The author consistently examines sources of the concept in the history of political and philosophical thought, as well as its current status. She concludes that the concept of «soft power» was put forward by JosephS. Nye and became important for political science after his efforts to clarify the concept. In addition, it happened due to the concept’s consistency with the contemporary understanding of preferred forms of regulation of international relations and maintenance of world order, as well as its cognitive capacities (adequate understanding and explanation of global trends). The author offers her own vision of definition and model of the phenomenon. It is shown that the methodology of the assessment of states’ «soft power» has not take shape yet; thus, the use of results of statistical data without poll results leads to unsatisfactory conclusion. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of strategic discourses of «soft power» in Russian and Chinese political science research centers. Despite a number of common problems, scientists from both countries acknowledge that «soft power» has became part of the national strategy.

 

Keywords: concept, soft power, international relations, foreign policy strategy.

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Law

Formation of Russian External Law History as Source Section of National Law History (the Second Quarter of 19th Century)

Kodan, Sergey

The article discusses the history of formation of outer Russian legislation in domestic justice in the second quarter of the 19th century - a section in legal science, which studies the legalization of the sources of law in the retrospective projection. The impetus for the creation of this trend in the Russian law was the systematization of legislation, the publication of The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, and the development of legal education. Due to rapid development of legal science in Russia, the question of sources of knowledge of law becomes the subject of research and teaching; and it results in the establishment of the sources of law as a section of legal science. M.M.Speransky raised this question and marked the importance of studying law as a reflection of the political and legal development of Russia. K.A.Nevolin,Professor of  Kiev University, allocated the outside part of law as section of encyclopedia of law, and founded the basis for historical knowledge of sources of law and their values in the periodization of the history of Russian law. Professors N.F.Rozhdestvensky and I.D.Belyaev continued study of the sources of law, and justified the selection of the external history of legislation as special section of the historical and legal science. In the second half of 19th early 20th centuries, the legal chronology was rooted in Russian legal science as its part, which provided study of sources of law and the history of legislation.

Keywords: History of State and Law of Russia, source, sources of law, sources of knowledge of law,  external history of legislation.

 

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Problems of Implementation of OECD Decisions and Recommendations into Environmental Protection Legislation of Russia

Kodolova, Alena , Manvelova, Aleksandra

Among priorities of international policy of the Russian Federation is the entry into Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The condition of the entry is the implementation of OECD decisions and recommendations into Russian legislation. Decisions and recommendations of OECD concerning environmental protection and ensuring ecological safety deserve special attention. OECD requirements concerning the need to change several Russian normative legal acts are contained in the «Road map» for the entry of the Russian Federation into OECD Convention, which was accepted on November, 30, 2007 by 1163 session of OECD Council. The main directions of modernization of ecological legislation are the following: waste management, polluter pays principle, environmental monitoring, ecological information, ecological safety of industrial activity. OECD requirements’ concerning modification of Russian normative legal acts actually stimulates the reforming of ecological legislation in our country.

Keywords:organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), environmental legislation, ecological safety, waste management, polluter pays principle, environmental monitoring, ecological information.

 

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