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2018
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Philosophy

KANTIAN CONCEPTION OF RADICAL EVIL AND ITS LIMITS: ETHICAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS

Yarkeev, Aleksey

Abstract: The article considers Kant’s conception of radical evil in the aspect of extracting implications concerning contemporary ethical and political meditations. It reveals such a perspective of Kant’s moral philosophy, according to which the moral law presents itself as the entity where true moral position and evil are fully identical. Kant eliminated such a view on the moral law as impossible “diabolical evil”. This kind of evil is not driven by pathological motivation; that is why it fully corresponds to the criterion of a moral deed. This innate problem of Kant’s moral philosophy may be solved by means of subjectivizing the moral law when moral subject assumes full responsibility for the translation of the categorical imperative into a concrete moral obligation, which has the structure of Kant’s aesthetic judgment. Kantian reflective judgment opens a space of subjected political being.
Keywords: radical evil, diabolical evil, moral law, categorical imperative, ideology, subject, aesthetic judgment.

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AFTER CAPITALISM: THE END OF ALIENATION OR RENTAL ERASURE?

Davydov, Dmitry

Abstract: The article is devoted to theoretical understanding of the alienation phenomenon. According to the author, modern views on the alienation phenomenon lead to erroneous forecasts, according to which modern capitalism gradually develops the communism of knowledge. This modern “cognitive capitalism” is characterized by the fact that instead of material assets creative self-realization and knowledge becomes the main factor of production, which is difficult to capitalize due to its public nature. According to the proponents of this idea, in cognitive capitalism personal freedom of being is gradually achieved (with the condition of overcoming consumerism), because the economic sphere moves towards abundance, as well as the regression of the need for compulsory labor. Nevertheless, the author expresses his disagreement with the theorists of cognitive capitalism as something prior to communism. According to the author, situation, in which everyone has a freedom of creativity, alienates a person no less than material poverty or forced and meaningless labor. Under the free competition of creativity, everyone has to justify constantly the originality and the significance of his/her ideas. However, it should be taken into account that there is a great chance for the reiteration of what has been said or demonstrated. The public nature of knowledge and creativity begins to alienate a person from his/her identity by distancing the purpose from the performer. This competition puts a person before a choice: to devote oneself completely to creativity or to give up being satisfied by the mediocre results. As a result, according to the author, the society of guaranteed minimal material wealth would be not communistic but rentoriented (rent society). Such a society is divided into the majority, consisting of those lived at the expense of public resources rentiers, and the productive “cognitive” class. In this regard, the author tries to find some alternatives to such an unfavorable scenario.
Keywords: capitalism, communism, cognitive capitalism, alienation, post-capitalism, rent society.

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Political science

IMMIGRATION IN ITALY: ASPECTS OF POLITICAL DEMOGRAPHY

Sakaev, Vasil

https://doi.org/10.17506/ryipl.2016.1.112134

Abstract: The article investigates the phenomenon of immigration in Italy, seeking a comprehensive explanation of the political and demographic aspects. It examines the demographic situation in the Italian Republic and explains the specific characteristics, factors and trends (low fertility, increasing life expectancy, and an aging population). It asserts that the relationship between demographics and migration processes in the past, present and future is determined by the need for immigration as a mechanism for social and economic development in Italy. The article reveals the dynamics, trends and development stages of the immigration processes in Italy from the 1980s to the present day taking into consideration ethnic and confessional structure of immigration, as well as ethnic characteristics of immigrant employment in the economy. The article emphasizes the study and analysis of the transformation of immigration policy, including the identification of its stages and patterns, reasons and characteristics of legislation. Special attention is given to the new challenges posed by the problem of refugees and illegal trafficking of people in the Mediterranean region after 2011. In conclusion, the author defines the importance of immigration issue for internal politics in Italy, describing the specifics of the integration of different migrant generations and highlighting the problems faced in relation to the political participation of immigrants in present time and in the future.
Keywords: Italy, demography, immigration, immigration policy, political demography.

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GENESIS OF CARLISM AND PROBLEMS OF TYPOLOGY OF SPANISH CONSERVATISM

Vasilenko, Yuri

Abstract: The article analyzes classical typologies of Carlism in the genetic stage of its development (1833-1876) as a special case of the Spanish conservatism as well as related conceptual and methodological problems. Based on the Russian classical typology of conservatism, which was proposed by A.A. Galkin and P.Yu. Rakhshmir, the author compares the typology of «political tendencies» of F. Suarez Verdeguer, the fractional classification of Carlism of C. Seco Serrano, and «three trends of Carlism» of J.C. Clemente Muñoz. For detailed conceptual and methodological draw, all analyzed typologies are tabulated in the summary with political-ideological and political-party spectrum of the emerging Spanish conservatism. Finally, the author concludes that the political-ideological «mainstream» of the emerging Carlism belonged to its right «fraction», namely, potentially right-wing conservatives, who had defined the essence of the whole Carlism for the next half-century. On this basis, the author argues that the genesis of Carlism in Spain could be presented as an ideal type for the study of the right-radical conservatism genesis within such «peripheral conservatisms» as German, Italian, Eastern European, and Russian ones.
Keywords: Carlism; political ideology; typology of conservatism; traditionalism; extremeright conservatism; Spain of the XIX century.

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IDENTITY POLICY OF REGIONS IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA: COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALISTIC IDENTIFIERS

Bederson, Vsevolod

https://doi.org/10.17506/ryipl.2016.1.3391

Abstract: This article is a summary of the results of research of personalized images (images of historical personalities), which are in use by the regional political elites for the purposes of identity policy. Such images are understood as personalistic identifiers, i.e. identities policy’s elements, on the one hand, and region identification matrix elements, on the other hand. The study is based on discourse-analysis of materials from 83 regions of the Russian Federation, which allows formulating the key comparative characteristics of personalistic identifiers: the degree (“low”, “medium”, “high”), and nature (institutional and sub-institutional) of discursive stability’s personalistic identifier. Classification is based on the type of personalistic identifier’s ties with the region’s identifier (“a great son”; “pioneer”; “the governor-nostalgia”; “educator”; “personalities embodying the reflection about any traumatic period for the region [regional community]”; “Hero” of Golden Age”). The dominant discourse produced by regional elites through personalist identifier (unification discourse, particularization, uniqueness) is studied; the strategy of the regional political elites in relation to specific identifiers (legitimation strategy and strategy of forced identification) is observed; the tool, which updates personalistic identifiers of regional elites (nominations, monumentalization and ritualization) is identified.
Keywords: identity policy, regional identity, personalistic identifier.

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Law

SELF-GOVERNMENT OF ABORIGINAL PEOPLES IN CANADA: CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES AND DYNAMICS OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Larichev, Alexander

Abstract: The article discusses the features of the development of self-government institutions of aboriginal peoples in Canada. The author analyzes the historical and legal basis of aboriginal self-government, as well as the self-government system of Indians, established under the current law. In the article, the dynamics of constitutional and legal foundations of self-government of aboriginal peoples at present stage are also traced, and the models of self-government institutions development are outlined in accordance with the prevailing political and legal approaches to this issue. The author notes that despite significant positive developments in relation to the scope and content of the right to self-government of aboriginal peoples in Canada including the expansion of those on the other constitutionally recognized ethnic groups – Métis and Inuit, – a number of unresolved problems of both legal and theoretical nature remains. Thus, the forms of selfgovernment of aboriginal peoples need to be optimized taking into account international experience in this sphere.

Keywords: self-government of aboriginal peoples; Canadian experience; legal framework; conceptual approaches.

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