19 (2)
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2019
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catalogue – 43669
ANTINOMIES
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Philosophy

LONELINESS AS EXISTENTIALE OF ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY (FROM EPICURUS TO PLOTINUS)

Gagarin, Anatoly

The paper continues the investigation of ancient Homo Solus, a Lonely Man. In addition to the negative loneliness and isolation, philosophy in the period of classical antiquity ex-plores human ideal of ancient philosophy – the sage included into socio-political processes, as well as strived towards complete or partial lifetime identification with Focus wisdom (like deities Boon, the One ), and secluded. Homo Solus is the sage who aspires to achieve identity with God (some-times reaches it in mystical ecstasy), who chats with the “self”, rather, with the divine zone (level) inside the I. In ancient philosophy, the sage is the only type of person who reaches positive correlation with existential loneliness of human existence, who is self-sufficient in his own wisdom, who possess inner freedom, which is given through the process of identification with God (Good), in revealing divine relationship with the transcendent. Loneliness as existentiale “is granted” to the person, firstly, if he is the sage, secondly, if the wise man meets the loneliness “stoically” (in broad terms), and has inner freedom, which is given through the process of identification with God (Good), in revealing the divine relationship with the transcendent. Sage is the only type of person who obtains positive correlation with the loneliness as the existentiale of human being. He is a man who is self-sufficient in his own wisdom, but does not oppose himself to the world (cosmos), who is ataraksic, apathetic, evtyumic, evpatic, autarkic, ascetic but not unhuman; who is drawn towards some welcome center but does not became such a center by himself; who limits himself but is not closed; who is separated from the crowd and secluded but not isolated from society and not aban-doned.

Keywords: loneliness, phenomenological topic, existentiale of human being, Ancient philosophy, Stoics, Cynics, Epicurus, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Plotinus.

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ANALYSIS OF EXISTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN KARL MARX’S PHILOSOPHY

Kondrashov, Pyotr

In the article, an attempt is made to prove that Karl Marx’s philosophy is one of the forms of existential philosophy (but not the Existentialism nor the existentialistic philosophy). The author understands it as a type of philosophizing where the main problem is the problem of the human being, of the authenticity and inauthenticity of his existence-in-worlds (in-der-Welt-sein), of his attitudes towards the world and non-indifferent experience of these attitudes. The author shows that all such basic questions of the existential philosophy are touched in Marx's philosophy, namely: problem of essence and existence, Existenz, being-in-world, suffering, authenticity and inauthenticity of human life, alienation (Entäußerung, Entfremdung), existential temporality, and historicity. Moreover, all these existential problems (and not just the problem of alienation) take place in Marx's thought through all its development, and not just during the early period of his work as it is usually considered. The author draws the conclusion that Karl Marx's philosophy represents the rationalistic, humanistic and revolutionary-optimistic version of existential philosophy. He considers that human life finds the authenticity not in-itself but only in active transcending of Existenz in the world.

Keywords: Marx's philosophy, existential philosophy, authenticity and inauthenticity of human life, alienation, suffering, existential non-indifference, existential temporality, historicity, freedom.

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MYTHOLOGEM OF «OWN-ALIEN» IN ARCHAIC REFLECTION OF THE WORLD (attempt of philosophical interpretation)

Verkhovsky, Ilya

The article considers the archetypal myth of «own-alien» as a phenomenon of archaic thinking. Based on the mythological materials of Ob Ugric peoples, the author analyzes visions on metaphysically own and metaphysically another space as existential-phenomenological topics of archaic thinking Thus, the «own» and metaphysically assimilated is the archaic space, which immediately surrounds the sacred Center of the World of the particular archaic group – the totem pole, religious construction, etc. Such space is literally perceived as the «territory of Heaven on Earth», which is consecrated by activities and «other-world protection» of spirit-ancestors and cultural heroes. Accordingly, being distant from the Center, the space loses and «washes out» its sacral characteristics, being turned into its own opposition – the «alien» and infernal space. In addition, the article considers archaic forms of consciousness. The author points out the analogy of the awareness of the «other» as an aggregate of ontological infernality in the archaic thinking and the modern Western philosophical tradition. If in the perception of the member of the traditional society the other is «totally different» as the personification of the unknown hostile forces of Chaos-Inferno, it is almost non-accidental that in the twentieth century the thesis of one of the founders of existentialism J.-P. Sartre: «the Other is a hell», obtains philosophical ground. Methodologically, the text is constructed as the experience of historical-philosophical research of the genesis of the myth of «own-alien» with the emphasis on the problematic approach in the history of philosophy.

Keywords: mythological consciousness, archaic thinking, metaphysically own, metaphysically alien, Chaos, ontological self-identification, philosophy of myth, archaic dualism, sacral space.

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HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY AND CHRISTIANITY IN THE TIMES OF CRISIS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THIRD CENTURY A.D.

Dolgikh, Andrei

The article illustrates that the Roman Empire crisis in the third century A.D. usually considered as political and economic was to no lesser extent expressed in the decline of philosophy and impoverishment of Christianity. Apparently, only three philosophical schools out of the six largest ones established in the IV–III centuries B.C. survived – Academy, Lyceum and Stoa. At the same time, the activity of their representatives was almost completely reduced to commenting on ancient philosophical heritage and on writing texts that had no direct relationship to philosophy. There were signs of some rapprochement between academic and peripatetic philosophers, which resulted in the actual merge of these schools by the end of the IV century. In Christianity, new churches no longer arose, and the old ones, which often offered very unusual kinds of faith, ceased to be attractive for proselytes. There was no subsequent philosophic revival; therefore, one could conclude that indeed the third century could be regarded as the boundary between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Nonetheless, the few brilliant thinkers of this period (Plotinus, Porphyry, Mani, Origen, Sabellius) had a big influence on subsequent philosophy and Christianity.

Keywords: crisis, philosophy, philosophical school, Christianity.

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INFLUENCE OF ERNST MACH’S IDEAS ON FRITZ MAUTHNER’S LANGUAGE CRITIQUE (based on private correspondence of Austrian philosophers and on E. Mach’s personal documents)

Nizyeva, Larisa

The article is dedicated to the investigation of Ernst Mach’s philosophical ideas and to the analysis of their influence on Fritz Mauthner’s language critique theory. It is well known that both Austrian thinkers were personally acquainted and maintained correspondence since 1889 until 1915. Their private correspondence is kept in the archives of the Fraunhofer Institute named after Ernst Mach in Freiburg, Germany. Mutual letters of the philosophers, as well as the records of Ernst Mach’s diaries and notebooks, were published only in 1982. The author points out that at the turn of the twentieth century Mach’s philosophy reflected dominating views and ideas in Austria and extended far beyond positivism, affecting not only the critique of language and phenomenology, but also culture, literature and art of that period of time. Fritz Mauthner is practically unknown in the contemporary Russian philosophical literature, and even if he is mentioned it is rather in connection to the most recognized Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The article provides an analysis based on the private correspondence of E. Mach and F. Mauthner and on Ernst Mach’s personal documents, which shows how Ernst Mach’s philosophical reflections influenced Fritz Mauthner’s oeuvre, and how they were developed in his language critique. According to Austrian philosophical tradition, both philosophers are united in the critique of I. Kant’s philosophy, “thing-in-itself” and I-analysis.

Keywords: Austrian philosophy, perception, language critique, language worlds, critique of the “thing-in-itself”, I-analysis.

 

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Political science

LOBBYING IN THE EU: CORPORATIONS VS NGOS

Belousov, Alexander

Abstract: The article examines corporations and non-governmental organizations’ lobbying for public and private interests in the European Union. NGOs often lobby for public interests – consumer interests, environmental protection sphere interests, community interests (e.g. women's interests). Corporations prefer to lobby for private interests – industry interests, professional interests, private company interests. It often happens that they compete in lobbying for their interests, which leads to lobbying battles such as confrontation over reform of chemical industry (REACH reform). The European Union funds NGOs, and it helps them to be independent. As a part of ‘checks and balances’ system in the European decision-making process, it creates a competitive environment for lobbying. As a result, deputies of the European Parliament and representatives of the European Commission prefer to deal with NGOs; on the other hand, members of the Council of the European Union prefer to deal with corporations. In 2005, lobbying effectiveness of NGOs and corporations was assessed as equivalent. By 2009, the situation has changed: corporations raised the effectiveness of lobbying, and now they are ahead of NGOs in many areas, with the exclusion of consumer products, food and beverages. Thus, NGOs are no longer able to compete with corporations in several industries such as energy, medicine and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: lobbying, European Union, European Commission, European Parliament, NGO, corporation, public interest, private interest.

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SPANISH TRADITIONALISM IN THE TIMES OF TRANSITION: J.L. VILLANUEVA`S NINE IDEOLOGICAL AND VALUE «MUTATIONS»

Vasilenko, Yuri

Abstract: The article analyzes some ideas, views and values of the outstanding Spanish historian, writer and poet of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries J.L. de Villanueva y Astengo. Living in the turn of the eras, Villanueva experienced several ideological and value «mutations» during his turbulent political career. Therefore, in the Spanish political science the definition of his ideological identity varies from «exalted» liberalism to radical traditionalism. Based on the interpretation proposed by two Spanish historians – liberal J. Herrero and traditionalist M. Menendez y Pelayo – the author distinguishes nine such «mutations», which turns into unsolvable problems for researchers of Villanueva`s political ideology and political practice. Proving Villanueva`s ideal-typical non-ideality (as the priest who retired from the Inquisition into the liberal-bourgeois revolution, but wished to remain Catholic traditionalist), the author demonstrates the complex nature of modern political ideology genesis and explains why in the XIX–XX centuries Spain the modernization runs down and faces serious difficulties.

Keywords: Spanish traditionalism, transition, ideological and value «mutation», J.L. de Villanueva.

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RECENT TENDENCIES OF IDENTITY POLITICS ON REGIONAL LEVEL IN RUSSIA: ACTORS, SPECIFICS, TRENDS

Nazukina, Maria

The author analyzes innovations in the practice of construction of regional identity in Russia. The article determines that the main trend of identity politics is the instrumental opinion of identity, and the sense of identity as a resource of territorial development. This is reflected in the widespread search for regional brands and organizing competitions in order to develop new regional symbols. The author analyzes the positioning of regional features manifested in participating in the projects initiated by external actors (projects – “Seven wonders of Russia”, “Russia 10”, image events including the Olympic Games in Sochi, etc.). There are two models of identity politics – traditional and innovative. The first involves the reliance on established symbolic attributes of regional uniqueness. The second is aimed on the search for new expression of the personality, character, contemporary art and art practices. Currently, the politicization of regional identity is manifested in the use of the patriotic feelings in election campaigns (the discourse of “friend or enemy”) in order to legitimize the position of the Governor.

Keywords: regional identity, identity politics, brand, symbol.

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ISSUE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE IN NEO-LIBERAL POLITICAL DOCTRINE AND PRACTICE: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

Khmelinin, Aleksey

This article deals with the possibility of studying social justice in the neoliberal political doctrine within the theoretical analysis. The research problem is theoretical and practical uncertainty of the main consensus concerning the doctrinal principles of social justice in the situa-tion of its high political relevance, as well as the multiplicity of its social contexts through the prism of the implementation of neoliberal reforms in the Russian society. Due to the ambiguity of the neoliberal doctrine, the author identifies three approaches, which allows viewing it as political phenomenon and as the category of political science. Firstly, it is neoliberalism of Keynesian type; secondly, the libertarian kind of neoliberalism; thirdly, the Washington Consensus as a model of ne-oliberalism of modern societies. The author makes emphasis on the last one. He proposes under-standing the model of Washington Consensus as a complex system with liberal theoretical and methodological roots and as a certain kind of philosophy, according to which the model of the poli-tics is constructed in the contemporary context of globalization and interdependence of existing institutions of state and society and ideological and political paradigms. At the same time, the Russian model of neoliberalism is syncretic; in particular, it is based on the principle of social justice. Historically, the issue of justice attracted serious attention of researchers from Socrates to D.S. Mill, J. Rawls, R. Dvorkin, etc. The domestic political science pays enough attention to Western theories of justice, as well as develops own theory by T.A. Alekseeva, A.A. Guseynov, S. Grigoriev, L.G. Greenberg, G.Y. Kanarsh, A.I. Novikov, V. Maltsev. Works of N.A. Vedenina, R.K. Shamileva, B.N. Kashnikov, V.S. Martyanov and others are very notable. The author concludes about the need to define fundamental concept of social justice in the current political situation in Russia based on the convergence of its basic understanding in conservative and liberal political trends. Modern political “reading” and the implementation of the principles of social justice in Rus-sia seems to be contradictory and inconsistent.

Keywords: neoliberalism, political doctrine, discourse analysis, social justice, neo-conservatism, “welfare” state.


 

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