19 (2)
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2019
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Philosophy

Soviet Atheism in the Context of Multiple Modernities

Stepanova, Elena

Abstract: the transformation of Russia after the October Revolution of 1917 implied the total rejection of religion and its replacement with ‘scientific’ atheism based on the conviction in human beings as the only constructive agents of the historical process. In the authors’ opinion, Soviet atheism generally corresponds to the mainstream of Enlightenment-type rationalism, which was one of the main factors of the transition towards modernity; and the universalism of Soviet atheism goes in the same way as universalist pretentions of secularization theory. In general, Soviet atheism may be viewed as the extreme variation of secularization, and its analysis helps to extend our understanding of complexity and multi-variety of modernity. In analyzing similarities and differences of Western secularization and Soviet atheism, the author tries to avoid both the idea of total ‘replacement’ of the religious by secular (and vice versa) in the Soviet period, and the concept of the ‘return’ to ‘genuine’ state of affairs in post-Soviet times. The author concludes that the nature of the post-atheistic religion in modern Russia, as well as the nature of the post-secular religiosity in general, clearly demonstrates the overlapping of religious and secular in modernity.

Keywords: ‘Scientific’ atheism, secularization, modernity, religious ‘revival’, universalism, rationalism, public and private space.

 

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Augustine the Blessed's Doctrine of God's Reward from the Viewpoint of Two-Valued Algebra of Formal Ethics

Lobovikov, Vladimir

Abstract: The scientific novelty: In this paper for the first time in the world literature the author constructs and investigates a discrete mathematical model of evaluation-functional aspect of the conflict of Augustine’s and Pelagius’ doctrines of human freedom and God’s reward. The scientific analysis of the difficult problem of Augustine’s conception of absolutely arbitrary response-action of God is implemented by comparing the discrete mathematical model of evaluation-functional aspect of Augustine’s doctrine with the discrete mathematical model of the same aspect of Pelagius’ heretical one. This scientific result (inventing adequate algebraic model of the conflict) is significantly new one: previously it was obtained and submitted for publication neither by foreign nor by domestic researchers, including the author of this paper. In particular the author in this paper for the first time attracts attention to the complete correspondence between the tabular definition of the evaluation-functional sense of the binary operation “response-action” in two-valued algebra of actions and the evaluation-functional aspect of Augustine’s religious-ethical conception of grace and free will. Up to the present time there was no precedent of applying the artificial language of two-valued algebra of formal ethics to studies of the anti-Pelagius religious-ethical conception of Augustine. The precedent originally made in this paper gives substantially new arguments to both: the Augustinians and their opponents: the controversy is elevated to a qualitatively new level of analyzing moral-activity-form deprived of its contents. In this paper for the first time in the world literature the author submits precise tabular definitions of the binary moral-evaluation-functions called “Augustinian moral-response-action” and “Pelagian moral-response-action”. 

Keywords: Augustine, Pelagius, good, evil, freedom, action, reward, two-valued-algebra-of-formal-ethics, evaluation-variable, evaluation-function.

 

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How Capitalism, University and Mathematics Shaped Mainstream Economics

Yefimov, Vladimir

Abstract: The article is devoted to the history of formation of the mainstream economics. The author shows that business community played a decisive role in its formation, because was interested not in a scientific discipline, which would explore the economic reality, but in an economic discipline, which reflects an ideology favorable to this community. If by science one means the real (not imaginary) research practices adopted in the natural sciences, then in the history of economic thought one will find just few islands of science in the sea of philosophy, ideologies and utopias. Throughout the 20th century, the economics taught in universities performed exclusively ideological function of justifying and maintaining the existing social order: the Soviet order in the USSR and the market order in the West. After the fall of the Soviet order, Western aid projects in Russia were targeted to replace this order by the market one and to transform the economic education according to the Western model. This model involves not learning of the realities of market economy, but a market vision of social realities, which pictures all human relations as relations of exchange and buying-selling, and humans as seeking their self-interest with guile. The article shows how economics taught now in Russian universities was initially shaped in France, UK and the USA.

 

Keywords: Boisguilbert, Quesnay, Rousseau, Smith, Schmoller, Marshall Commons, Debré.

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Political science

Sorel, Our Contemporary

Fishman, Leonid

Abstract: The article is devoted to «Reflections on violence» by J. Sorel recently published in Russia. The significant intellectual and political strategies following from «Reflections», which have analogies in later periods, are allocated. The author shows that Sorel actually was the early critic of «ideological consensus» of the Latest times, or «liberal geo-culture» according to the Vallerstayn's terminology. For him, the liberal consensus was an embodiment of a decadent, moral, and cultural decline, which affected all those who actively participated in such consensus. The moral and ideological “bog” of consensus leaded to moral degradation of all classes – first of all the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The conclusion is made that Sorel's «Reflections» were followed by the «strong» strategy of destruction of liberal consensus by socialist revolution, and «weak» (but much more demanded several decades later) strategy of «cultural revolution». The author proves that in a sense we remain Sorel's contemporaries because we continue to follow the intellectual footpaths blazed by him. In many respects, Sorel's intuitions concerning  moral and ideological perspective of modern societies anticipate our perception of the contemporary world.

 

Keywords: J. Sorel, liberal consensus, cultural revolution, morality.

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Scope of Concepts of Nationalities Policies in Late Soviet Period: Possibilities of Actualization

Fadeicheva, Marianna

Abstract: The article considers the system of concepts and main ideas that characterize nationalities policies during the period of developed socialism. Theoretical and ideological basis of Soviet nationalities policies was based on a particular version of Marxist philosophy, Marxist-Leninist ideology, specific historical approach, the class approach towards justification of the brotherhood and friendship of nations. The substance of Soviet nationalities policies was expressed in the ideological formula: “Prosperity and convergence of the nations in the course of socialist and communist construction”. Not the joint complex past, but the joint future was a basis for spiritual community of socialist nations and their further convergence. The friendship and partnership was proclaimed as ideal relations between socialist nations. The concepts borrowed from the period of developed socialism are used in postsoviet national discourse; however, their content is quite different. While Soviet and post-Soviet discourse on nationalities has some outward similarities, the paradigmatic turn from Soviet civil nationalism to ethnic nationalism, as well as from proletarian internationalism to different variants of bourgeois nationalism has occurred. 

 

Keywords: Problem of nationalities, national policy, internationalism, nationalism, multinational people, brotherly friendship.

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Modernization of Moral, Political and Legal Regulators as a Way of Combating Corruption

Martyanov, Victor

Abstract: There have been a significant number of myths that justify corruption emerged in Russia. They complicate anti-corruption efforts connected to universal decisions in legal sphere, cultural policy, standards in state governing and public control. In any society, corruption cannot be absolutely avoided unless governing is performed by artificial sense that is anxious of public good, while human governing is spoiled by particular interests, preferences and human nature imperfections. Nevertheless, corruption can be minimized by twofold policy that combines restrictions of bureaucrats’ behavior by standards and public control with widening the borders of trust in public life.

The first includes state and municipal officers, as well as medical personnel, teachers, police officers and other state and municipal employees by reducing the spheres of uncertainty in their relations. This includes: a) adoption of technological standards and protocols in state and municipal service; b) liberalization of public life, reducing the scope of state regulation that will lead to reduction of the interface of contacts between citizens and bureaucracy that may include personal interest; c) creating effective mechanisms of feedbacks by active participation of citizens in state governance controlling; d) personified monetary social support.

The second imposes creating the conditions when corruptive behavior appears to be economically unprofitable and morally inacceptable. This means a) rising the office holders income that will enhance competition for the offices; b) intolerance of elites to any fact of corruption, including belongings confiscations and professional disqualifications; c) transparency of state decision-making; d) widening the public trust as eliminating the archaic models of social communications in favor of modern value and institutional mechanisms of social integration.

 

Keywords: corruption, resistance, effective values, state service standards, liberalization, trust, public control, authority transparency.

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Law

Nation and National Minorities in Parliament: from XX to XXI Century

Filippova, Natalya

Abstract: The article examines the reasons for the formation of new institutions, which represents national minorities in contemporary parliamentary legislation. This process was particularly intense in the first two decades of the XXI century, as it is reflected in national constitutional reforms, as well as in changes of international law. However, the article argues that the Russian constitutional law is not ready for the reception of these institutions, because it is characterized by the regulation of the legal status of minorities, precluding their collective political participation. Unlike the majority of the studies of this issue, the author proves the correlation between the legal doctrine of the nation and the decision on the admissibility (inadmissibility) of the separate representation of national minorities. The conclusion is made that "the revolution of minorities" in the parliament is a natural stage in the development of the systems of public representation in the countries with continental law system. The revision of the classical principles of parliamentarism means commitment to the fundamental idea of the nation as a legal entity. Also, it is argued that the productive reform of electoral and parliamentary legislation is only possible if there is a distinction of the forms of representation of traditional ethnic minorities on the one hand, and indigenous peoples, on the other hand.

 

Keywords: nation, national minorities, system of public representation, ethnic minorities, indigenous peoples.

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Modern Constitutional Reforms of Russian Federalism: Search for Optimal Structures and Prospects

Bezrukov, Andrey

Abstract: The article examines the main trends in the modern federal reforms. The author analyzes the methods of formation of Chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the procedure of filling the position of the Head of subject of the Russian Federation, and the procedure of changing the subject composition of the Russian Federation. The way of optimization of the formation of Federal and regional powers is proposed, namely, gradual transition to the election of members of Federal Assembly. The author positively estimates the return to elections of deputies of the State Duma according to the mixed majoritarian-proportional system. Based on the analysis of current legislation and legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the author proposes adjustments of the existing order of replacement of the position of the Head of the RF subjects directed toward democratization and facilitation. The author develops directions of perfection of the Federal transformations, namely, the improvement and legislative adjustments of the procedure of changing the subject composition of the Russian Federation, which excludes the combination of acceptance and formation of new subject of the Russian Federation. The practice of adoption of new subjects of the Russian Federation and directions of its optimization is studied.

 

Keywords: Constitution of the Russian federation; federal system; federal transformation; justice; Parliament; Federal Assembly; State Duma; Head of RF subject; change of subject composition of Russia; adoption of new subject of the Russian Federation.

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Constitutional and Legal Aspects of Implementing the People's Constitutional Right of Resistance

Kondrashev, Andrey

Abstract: The article analyses the reasons and conditions of the implementation of people’s right of resistance in the international legislation and the legislation of various countries. The history of the normative fixing of this right in the international acts and in the constitutions of a number of the European countries is observed. The philosophical views of J. Locke and J.-J. Rousseau regarding justification of the right of resistance are analyzed. There is a lack of studies of the right of resistance in Russian constitutional scientific discourse, except two short articles. In the present article, ten basic principles of the implementation of people’s right of resistance through the analysis of the reasons for revolts against authorities in various countries are allocated. The author suggests discussing the possibility of fixing the general provisions of people’s right of resistance against illegal actions of the government in the Constitution of Russia, similar to several constitutions of foreign countries, and to involve leading constitutionalists in such discussion. The conclusion is made that it is people who legitimate the power through elections, providing the power with the mandate to govern and to execute legal coercion. If it is not possible to transfer (to take away) the power from the officials who discredit it by legal means, the compelled decision concerning the revolt against the authorities is made (although such decision is extremely dangerous and leads to bloodshed, and sometimes to civil war).

 

Keywords: resistance, opposition, protest, revolt, president, parliament.

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