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catalogue – 43669
Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)


— showed 2 articles from2


The Role of the Political Theology of Martyrdom in the Formation of Proto-National Patriotism in Medieval Europe

Yarkeev Aleksey
The article is devoted to the historical and philosophical study of the origin and formation of the prerequisites of national patriotism in medieval Europe in the optics of the political theology of martyrdom. It is argued that the figure of a national hero-patriot, sacrificing his own life in the name of the fatherland (pro patria mori), has a certain martyrological content derived from the Christian cult of martyrs. The willingness to die for their beliefs and faith, which gives the phenomenon of martyrdom a politically motivated character, allows us to talk about the possibility of building a political martyrology, within the boundaries of which a Christian martyr as a citizen of the heavenly city (civitas coelestis) appears as a defender of his fatherland (defensor patriae paradisi), sacrificing his own life. Since Christianity acquired the status of the state religion, the heavenly city has been involved in the historical context of the Late Roman Empire, with the prospects of which the fate of Christianity itself is actually identified. The need to protect the empire from barbaric invasions forces theologians to develop the concepts of just war (bellum iustum) and holy war (bellum sacrum), which led to the secularization of the idea of the army of Christ (militia Christi) that initially implied participation in the battle with the forces of evil only on the rights of a spiritual army. The combination of two axiological systems (Christ army and secular army) was carried out through the glorification and militarization of the figure of the martyr, on the one hand, and the functional-figurative comparison of the figure of the warrior with the figure of the martyr, on the other. The protection of the Holy Land (Terra Sancta) in the era of the Crusades served as a model on the basis of which the idea of the heavenly homeland began to function in the secular register. As a result of the further evolution of the monarchical state in the paradigm of the “political body” (corpus politicum), the religious imperative of self-sacrifice of a Christian for the sake of the heavenly fatherland acquired the form of a public-legal requirement of civil self-sacrifice for the benefit of the earthly fatherland, which later took shape as a national state.
Keywords: political theology, martyrology, martyrdom, martyr, Christianity, Middle Ages, patriotism, patriot, nation
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The “Economics of Shortage” by János Kornai in the Context of the “Political Economy of Real Socialism”: А Methodological Aspect of Studying the Soviet Society

Koryakovtsev Andrey
The article analyzes the methodological aspects of the shortage economy theory by the Hungarian economist János Kornai. The purpose of the study is to show the significance of his ideas for Sovietology and social science in general. Kornai explores such a poorly researched area of the socialist economy as the commodity shortage. To cover it, he coins a new categorical apparatus (“forced substitution”, “soft budget constraint”, “hard budget constraint”, etc.), operates with rarely used terms or puts new content into familiar terms. Kornai’s theory is compared with the theory of the Soviet academician Stanislav G. Strumilin, the designer of “teleological planning” and supporter of power and ideological methods of socio-economic management. Despite the fact that these theories belong to different eras and reflect different realities, their comparison allows us to trace not only the evolution of the “political economy of socialism”, but also the evolution of the society they described. The article also examines such issues as the degree of contiguity of the methodology used by Kornai to the Marxist one; the problems solved and unsolved by him; the ideological prerequisites that contributed to his transition to the free-market supporters’ camp; the relevance of Kornai’s theory in the post-Soviet period. According to the author of the article, the scientist managed to uncover the patterns of those social trends that the official Soviet “political economy of socialism” ignored, but he did not avoid the one-sidedness of his conclusions, which was a step towards the ideology of “market romanticism” of the 1990s. It is concluded that the ideas of Kornai represent a late version of the “political economy of socialism”, but at the same time they contain elements of the opposite doctrine – the “political economy of capitalism”. In this regard, it can be said that the theory of the Hungarian economist sums up the Soviet “political economy of socialism” and opens a new paradigm of social studies of post-Soviet society.
Keywords: socialism, shortage, commodity imbalance, overproduction of commodities, political monopoly, János Kornai, Joseph V. Stalin, Stanislav G. Strumilin, teleological planning, market 
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