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catalogue – 43669
Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)


— showed 6 articles from6


Effective Altruism: Pro and Contra

Balashov Dmitry
One of the newest and most influential ethical, political and philosophical theory of the XXI century is “effective altruism”. Its basic ideas firstly appeared in the second half of the XX century in the works of the famous utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer, but the real influence the conception obtained in the second decade of the XXI century. The popularity of the concept is ensured by a combination of a humanistic philosophy, on the one hand, and a concentration on its realistic and effective implementation, on the other. The emergence of the effective altruism is connected with the growing disbalances in the globalizing world. At the turn of the XX and XXI centuries, the quality of people’s lives in the most developed countries reached the highest level in history, while the problems of hunger and child mortality in less developed countries of Africa and Asia remained sharp. Effective altruists wonder how is it possible in the modern world. How, from the point of view of morality, one can explain the existence of easily remedied disasters and injustices on our planet? What needs to be done to solve these problems? One of the main problems identified by representatives of effective altruism is the specificity of moral intuitions inherent both in humankind and in each individual. These intuitions may block the moral intentions toward a person in a distance, while promote them toward people who are close. Effective altruists criticize such situation and try to find a solution. The article observes the main stages of the evolution of the concept of the effective altruism. The philosophical foundations of the concept are explored based on the works of the most famous representative of the movement – Peter Singer. The philosophical critique of effective altruism from both deontological and virtue ethical theories is considered.
Keywords: utilitarianism; effective altruism; efficiency; moral intuitions; moral universalism; deontological ethics; instrumental value; virtue ethics
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Scientific Knowledge: Virtue Epistemology vs Rational Skepticism

Yartsev Rustem
 This article is devoted to a critical analysis of the epistemology of virtues as a relatively new philosophical trend, the interest in which is noticeably increasing. This analysis is based on the author's concept of rational skepticism, which offers a justification for scientific knowledge. In the course of solving this problem, it turns out that the concepts of the epistemology of virtues do not support the division of cognition into cognitive practices and do not indicate which of them should include the good cognitive character that this direction seeks to establish. A comparison of the requirements of these concepts with the cognitive norms of science reveals a violation of its principles such as veritism, evidentialism, internalism, skepticism and deontological rationing. At the same time, the standards of the aretic approach developed by the epistemology of virtues are insufficient for the implementation of scientific norms, degenerating into the trivial idea that the cognitive success of cognition is conditioned by the application of the intellectual virtues of the subject and is its merit. As applied to science, the solution to the problem of the value of knowledge proposed by the epistemology of virtues is refuted; it is shown that the famous analogy of cognition with a coffee machine is incorrect here, and scientific truth in no way “absorbs” (swamp) its justification. In addition, it is revealed that the solution to the Gettier problem, based on the intersubjective definition of knowledge, gets to the supporters of the aretic approach at an unacceptably high price of turning their cognitive concepts into an empty formalism. As an alternative, solutions to these problems are discussed, supported by rational skepticism, which are free from the identified shortcomings; thus, the validity of scientific knowledge gives value to its validity, and the Gettier problem does not arise if this knowledge is considered to be the knowledge of a particular subject that allows revision. The main conclusion of the article is the refutation of the “value turn” in cognition, the necessity of which the epistemology of virtues insists on.
Keywords: epistemology of virtues; rational skepticism; knowledge; truth; value; turn; Gettier problem
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Political science

Ethno-Cultural Justice and Multiculturalism

Shaveko Nikolai
Contemporary societies are characterized by cultural, ethnic and religious diversity, which creates the need to find fair principles for resolving differences arising on the basis of such diversity. The purpose of the article is to consider the validity of the concept of multiculturalism as a solution to the problem of ethno-cultural justice. The article criticizes the theses expressed in the scientific literature in defense of multiculturalism. In particular, it is demonstrated that: 1) tolerance inevitably has its limits set by a single political culture for all, 2) the value of cultural diversity (in particular, its importance for personal development) should not be exaggerated, while it should be correlated with other values; 3) it is not cultures that should be considered equal, but their bearers; and since the rights of groups are derived from the rights of individuals, it is impossible to postulate the inalienable right of each culture to preserve and develop. The specifics of the activation of ethnic and regional identities are analyzed, as well as alternative ways of multiculturalism to prevent interethnic and intercultural conflicts. At the same time, a number of argumentas are given, according to which the preservation and development of cultural diversity should still be ensured (the significance of these arguments is always conditional): 1) the relative value of cultural diversity as such; 2) the role of the protection of minority and indigenous peoples, immigrants and other communities with a unique culture in ensuring the political and social stability of states, peace and security; 3) the preservation of historical and cultural heritage; 4) correction of historical injustices (at the same time, the conditions under which affirmative action can be justified are called). A policy that takes into account these arguments is justified by the author as a healthy “soft” variant of multiculturalism.
Keywords: multiculturalism; ethnic minorities; national minorities; interethnic conflicts; indigenous peoples; immigrants; justice
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Heuristic Possibilities of the Archetype Theory in the Political Science

Bulipopova Ekaterina
The article attempts to analyze the possibilities and limitations of the Jungian theory of archetypes for application in political science. The author gives her own definitions for the concepts of “archetype” and “archetypical space”, following the Jungian theory. It is proved that there is a number of aspects in the classical theory of K. G. Jung, which are missed by the modern way of using the term, but can be useful in political science. The article describes the main components of the Jungian theory of archetypes, the specific psychodynamics that accompanies manifestations of the archetypal in psychological space of an individual or a group. The author gives a brief description of the main archetypes identified by Jung, which became the basic concepts of so-called “collective soul map” – theoretic model that could be used to explore the mythology of various communities. According to Jung, the map of the soul is a good tool for primary orientation “on the mythological territory” or in the space of the collective unconscious. In any archetypal collective territory, one can always find the areas of the Shadow (the archetypal other, in a negative version – the enemy) and the Self (the ideal world or the desired future), the areas of the Ego (the way in which we understand ourselves) and the Person (the way we understand our role in the world). According to the author, understanding the essence of the deep complexes theory and role of the symbols in the process of overcoming archetypal conflicts contributes to the advancement of political science to comprehend the archetypal basis of mass behavior and the effective practice of peacemaking. Further, the author compares the content of the original (Jungian) theory of archetypes and the tradition of using this concept established in political science. There are three approaches to the definition and application of the term “archetype” in Russian social sciences – formal, dualistic and dynamic. Although each of the approaches is relevant for the tasks set by the researchers, the author comes to the conclusion that, in general, the definition of an archetype and approaches to its phenomenology are often formalized and simplified compared to the original concept of an archetype in Jungian theory. Thus, the involvement of the classical, uncut theory of archetypes as a methodological basis for the political studies in certain cases (for example, political mythology, culture, psychology, etc.) can significantly expand the possibilities of political theory in the analysis, modeling and forecasting.
Keywords: archetype; archetype theory; Jungian theory; political theory; mythology; political mythology; mass psychology; political psychology
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The Influence of Social Rights’ Foreign Teachings on the Russian Political and Legal Thought at the Beginning of the 20th Century

Sukhobok Tatyana
The majority of pre-revolutionary lawyers, despite the differences between them on the legal nature of social rights and the need for their recognition at the constitutional level, advocated an evolutionary path of social development. They considered the formation of capitalist relations as a natural and inevitable process that should be comprehended without falling into the extremes of utopian socialism. However, they noted the negative consequences of capitalism. In this regard, the study and analysis of the formation of social ideas in the legal thought of the beginning of twentieth century is of particular importance. In the article, the problem of the relationship between the principles of the rule of law and the social state in the concepts of Russian pre-revolutionary lawyers, the discussion in Russian legal science about the right to a worthy existence, and prerequisites and features of the formation of social ideas in the domestic legal thought in the context of influence of social rights’ foreign doctrines are considered. The author studies this issue using comparative historical, comparative legal, formal legal methods, as well as legal hermeneutics. The analysis proves that in the Russian political and legal thought of the early twentieth century, original concepts of a social legal state and the right to a worthy existence were formed. 
Keywords: social rights; concepts of social rights; political and legal thought; legal and social state; legal reality; community development; capitalism; legal science
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Economic Sovereignty of a State: Value, Challenges, Legal Mechanisms for Protection

Boldyrev Oleg , Chikhladze Lewan
Sovereignty is seen as one of the hallmarks of a state, however globalization and integration processes challenge state sovereignty. First of all, they challenge the economic component of state sovereignty – the so-called economic sovereignty. Many states, while de jure sovereign, do not have full sovereignty de facto. This problem is also relevant for Russia: it remains highly dependent on imports of high-tech products, on foreign components, foreign standards, foreign software products and payment systems. Although measures to address these problems were proclaimed, their effectiveness is doubtful. It seems that the ongoing financial and economic policy and some changes in Russian legislation (in particular, tax legislation) don’t contribute to genuine import substitution. Moreover they create difficulties for it. Of course, political scientists, economists and philosophers argue whether the value of state sovereignty is preserved in the modern world. But for lawyers the answer is obvious: sovereignty is one of the key principles of both international law and the constitutional law of most states. However, lawyers sometimes “do not notice” the threats to sovereignty, believing that sovereignty is a formal concept, not an actual one. According to many lawyers, the transfer of the powers of the state to supranational unions is not a limitation of sovereignty. It seems that such an approach only camouflages the problem, and does not contribute to its solution. Moreover, foreign experience indicates the possibility of using different terminology (“transfer of powers”, “transfer of sovereign rights”, “restriction of sovereignty”, etc.) for similar phenomena. The article draws attention to some of the threats to economic sovereignty that Russia has faced, and which are associated with public debt, various international obligations. New sanctions in connection with a change in the geopolitical situation in 2022 actualize this issue: dependence on imports of critically important products, on foreign software; disconnection Russia from the SWIFT system; termination of Visa and Mastercard payment systems in Russia; freezing of Russian reserves, etc. The authors of the article conclude that although one of the arguments in favor of the constitutional reform of 2020 was the protection of state sovereignty, a number of problems in this part remain unresolved. No constitutional restrictions on external borrowing have been introduced. Complicated procedures for the conclusion of those international agreements that may lead to limitation of the economic sovereignty of the state have not been established; other mechanisms for ensuring state sovereignty, which have already been tested in foreign experience, have not been used. Therefore, the relevance of further constitutional reform in terms of ensuring economic sovereignty remains 
Keywords: sovereignty; economic sovereignty; globalization; integration; import substitution; constitutional reform 2020; provisional application of international treaties
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