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2021
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catalogue – 43669
ANTINOMIES
Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)

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Philosophy

Theological Foundations of Modern Power: the Experience of Deconstruction

Yarkeev, Aleksey

Abstract. The article is devoted to the explication and research of the theological origins of the modern paradigm of power and politics in a methodological perspective, set by a combination of hermeneutical, genealogical and deconstructivist ways of reflection and interpretation. The highlighted concept of theology of power (politics) is thought out, mainly, at the intersection of the ideas of G. Agamben, K. Schmitt, E. Kantorovich, M. Heidegger, M. Foucault. The author substantiates the idea that the theological meanings and references of modern political concepts are not just brought to light in the course of special theoretical research and projections, but directly and implicitly have a practical impact on the political structure and technologies of power. The article considers the possibility of “suspending” the action of the metaphysical “machine” that is responsible for the production and operation of the theological myth of power, which determines the political existence of man and society in their modern expression. In this connection, the role of metaphysics, which determines the Western European world, is exhibited as an onto-theo-logy (M. Heidegger), which sees the supreme and first cause of all things as the divine. The rational theology thus sets the contours of all metaphysics, which determines the essence of European thinking in the Middle ages in the form of Christian theology, and in Modern times in the form of emerging scientific knowledge. Secularized political concepts act as a signature that refers to theology (G. Agamben). First of all, this applies to such a concept as “sovereignty”: the state-legal concept of the sovereign is derived from the Christian image of God, personifying the absolute, that is, unlimited, not deducible from anything, a single and indivisible form of power. The theological model of divine governance of the world, in which the miracle is understood as a manifestationof the providential and “saving” will of God, suspending the action of natural law, is the paradigm of the modern state of emergency as a direct intervention of the sovereign in the current law and order (K. Schmitt).

Keywords: theology; metaphysics; onto-theo-logy; political theology; power; politics; sovereignty; state of emergency.

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Alternative Philosophical Methodologies for Cognitive Psychology: Ernst Mach and Edmund Husserl

Bryanik, Nadezda

Abstract. Cognitive psychology is one of the most significant areas of modern science related to the creation of artificial intelligence (AI). The multifactorial conditionality of cognition is captured in variety of philosophical concepts, some of which can have applied meaning, including for cognitive psychology. The article considers two approaches that address diametrically opposite factors affecting cognitive activity. On the one hand, the diversity of cognition phenomena – from simple (sensations and representations) to the most complex (will, attention, memory, imagination, etc.) – depends on the psycho-physiological processes associated ultimately with physical energy. E. Mach based his concept on the ontology of psychophysiological parallelism. Back in the early 20th century, he designed the possibility of technical embodying of the results of his research on various phenomena and mechanisms of human cognitive activity. On the other hand, in the first decades of the 20th century, Husserl claims to create his own methodology for psychological science, which (methodology) simultaneously appears as the theoretical level of this field of science due to the fact that it explores the essence of the entire variety of cognitive phenomena, such as consciousness in its various variations, mental states, values and logical structure. Ideas/meanings peculiar only to human cognition acquire the character of “ideal objectivity” through written language. Written language, according to Husserl, is a way of virtual timeless storage and increment of ideas and meanings. At the same time, it can also become a means of their material, including technical, implementation. Mach in his methodology focuses on the physical, physiological, and biological aspects of the process of cognition; Husserl focused on existential and humanitarian factors that give cognitive activity a proper human character. This is the alternative of these approaches, which does not exclude the possibility of their mutual complementarity.

Keywords: E. Mach; E. Husserl; cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence; methodology; cognitive activity; material embodiment; alternative.

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