19 (3)
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2019
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ANTINOMIES
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Political science

CARLISM AND SPANISH POLITICAL TRADITION: YESTERDAY AND TODAY

Torres Miguel Ayuso

Abstract. The article analyzes the evolution of the key ideological concepts of Carlism – a mass social and political movement that arose in Spain in 1833 as a result of the dynastic crisis after the death of King Fernando VII, and led in the 19th century to three intra-national conflicts (“Carlist wars”) between supporters of the liberal bourgeois modernization and the Catholic tradition. The author shows that modern Carlism does not boil down to legitimism as a struggle for the right of the so-called “legitimist dynast” (descendants of Carlos V as the youngest branch of the Spanish Bourbons) to the Spanish throne, but also involves the institutional continuity of old Spain and is the incarnation of traditionalist thought. As a scholar, the author argues that the twentieth century Carlism is a movement for the continuity of the “Catholic monarchy” and the doctrinal development of Catholic traditionalism. As a doctrinaire, the author tries to prove that in the conditions of the crisis of the modern State the slogan of Carlism “God! Motherland! Fueros! King!” retains its relevance not only for modern Spain.
Keywords: Carlism; traditionalism; State; «Catholic monarchy»; modern Spain.

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“MANIFEST OF THE PERSIANS”, OR LOYALISTS BETWEEN TRADITIONALISM AND REFORMISM

Vasilenko, Yuri

Abstract. At the beginning of the 19th century, the transition from the Ancient Order to the New as liberal-bourgeois one in Spain first began to be carried out in the Cadiz Cortes by two political forces: revolutionary-minded liberals and moderate liberals (future “moderados”). The end of the War of Independence in 1814 and the return of the traditionalist-minded king Fernando VII created a “bifurcation point” from the resolution of which depended the further development of Spain for the medium term:either continuation of reforms or restoration of the Ancient Order. At the same time, the reformist impulse of Cadiz Cortes was so strong that even representatives of the initially traditionalist “servile party” formulated the so-called “Manifesto of the Persians”, which along with loyal feelings for the king offer a number of moderate political and institutional reforms. Despite the crushing failure of this project, Spanish historiography assessed the Manifesto as epochal and generally constructive: while left-wing historians always saw in it only a manifestation of an anti-revolutionary reaction, traditionalist historians, on the contrary, starting from the middle of the 19th century emphasized its pro-reformist intentions.
Keywords: “Manifesto of the Persians”; “servile party”; traditionalism; reformism; XIXth century Spain.

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