19 (2)
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2019
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catalogue – 43669
ANTINOMIES
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Philosophy

NON-NATURALIZED NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN MERAB MAMARDASHVILI’S TRANSCENDENTALISM

Gasparyan, Diana

Abstract. The outstanding feature of M. Mamardashvili`s approach to philosophy is his skill of the oral performance. This should not come as a surprise, considering the importance of the concept of consciousness in his philosophical conversations. The very notion of “talking about consciousness” is problematic. This phrase makes no sense, since one cannot speak about consciousness. Contrary to various naturalistic approaches, consciousness is not “something”. However, how does the process of cognition works? Misguided by the ambiguity of the concept, one may consider the consciousness as the transparent medium, which one may not notice being fascinated by the things. Then, as an afterthought, one may try to think about it as an object. Nevertheless, consciousness is never an object, and it does not appear to us at all, although it allows things and the world to exist. The intention of modern philosophical tradition is to convey this intuition. Mamardashvili’s philosophical method where the method of performance presentation is never just a formality, can be regarded as special kind of transcendentalism, which develops essential concepts to supplement this philosophical tradition.
Keywords: Merab Mamardashvili’s philosophy; consciousness; transcendentalism; criticism of naturalism; reflection; criticism of dualism.

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FAITH AS PRACTICAL ATTITUDE TOWARD CONTINGENT BEING

Zheleznov, Andrey

Abstract. The main idea of the article is to show how the concept of faith could resolve problem, which is created in modern ontologies. Under the term «modern ontologies» we understand concepts of Latour (ANT), Harman and Meillassoux (speculative realism), Kerimov and Krasavin (heterology). Within the framework of these ontologies, the world is described as a field of unexpected connections between equivalent entities. New participants and relationships are produced and changed by the process of that interaction. The world and its laws are contingent, they can change, and change at any time. Modern ontologies put us in front of an absolutely unknown future and deny certainty in predictions or calculations. Science is no longer able to predict the changes taking place in the world, society, and our identities due to the process of the world's permanent creation from the connections between a multitude of equal participants. As a result, we have a practical problem: it is not clear how to act reasonably in the world, which constantly gets out of control. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways of correlating our actions or our way of living with being given as «any being». The concept of faith brings us closer to the solution of this problem. Based on model of faith of Kierkegaard, James, Derrida, and Bishop, we can treat faith as practical attitude to any future. Faith is an act or activity, which correlate with the object of faith. Faith has a practical nature. And in the same time, faith implies acceptance of any future as a value and a blessing.
Keywords: ontology; difference; contingency; ANT; object-oriented ontology; being; future; faith.

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