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Lobovikov, Vladimir

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the analytical philosophy of natural language of dialectics. This topic is unexpected and new from the viewpoint of dominating tendency of consistent separation of the analytical philosophy from the continental one, and especially from the dialectical tradition. The subject-matter of investigation is formal-axiological-semantics of natural language in general and of the natural one of dialectical philosophy in particular. At an artificial-language level, the author constructs two-valued algebraic model of evaluation-functional aspect of dialectics as a system. Within the submitted algebraic system, the categories “becoming”, “converting” and “transition” (very often exploited by the dialectical philosophers) are represented as evaluation-functions determined by two evaluation-variables. At the model level, it is demonstrated that the classical linguistic principle of compositionality of meanings of complex expressions of language is adequate also to the language of dialectical philosophy (natural or artificial one – it does not matter). According to the submitted viewpoint, the notorious “darkness” of the natural language of dialectics is a result of logic-linguistic confusion; namely, a result of not-recognizing that the semantics of this specific language is formal-axiological (evaluation-functional) one in contrast to that formal-logical (truth-functional), descriptive-indicative one, on which representatives of traditional analytical philosophy concentrated all their attention.
Keywords: natural-language-of-dialectical-philosophy; formal-axiologicalsemantics; evaluation-functional-meaning; evaluation-variable; evaluationfunction; compositionality.

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Ryabushkina Tatyana

Abstract: The article analyzes the relationship between temporality and causality as causation that forms the structure of conscious experience. It is traditional for phenomenology and transcendental philosophy to posit temporality as a fundamental characteristic that determines the existence of consciousness. According to D. Hume, perceptions succeed each other, and nothing persists through change. For I. Kant, every synthesis is necessary condition of time-consciousness. In E. Husserl’s theory of constitution, the content of one’s current experience is shaped by the quasi-temporal flow. For M. Heidegger, ‘original temporality’ determines the horizon of Being. According to J.-P. Sartre, time is a condition of possibility of consciousness as existing at a distance from itself. However, the attribution of fundamentality to the temporal flow leads to a simplified understanding of causality. If to suppose that the temporal flow of consciousness is an immediately given basis of conscious experience, then there is no need to consider a causal relationship as a connection that explains emerging of new contents of consciousness and their order. Since new сontents are delivered and ordered by the temporary flow, the question of the conditions of newness is not posed. According to Hume, causality arises from a habit of mind to repeated sequence of experiences. In Kant’s view, causality is a rule that gives the sequence an objective character. Referring to non-obviousness of causal laws, Husserl diminishes the role of causation in consciousness. The assumption about the priority of temporality in comparison with causality determines the poststructuralist thought (the most typical example is the concept of J. Derrida). According to the author, the abyss between the idea and its embodiment and between the mental and the physical world, as well as the impossibility to find a place for freedom in the phenomenal world, are
the results of primacy of temporality over causality.
Keywords: phenomenology, transcendental philosophy, perceptions, temporality, causality, intentionality, the quasi-temporal flow of consciousness, subjectivity.

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Political science


Sørensen Ааge

Abstract: The article discusses the concept of rent and its relevance for the analysis of inequality in society. Rent is resource, which provide advantages for incumbents of social positions independently from characteristics of the incumbents. According to the author, inequalities created by rents generate interest toward protection and acquisition of advantages that form “objective” interest toward certain positions in social structure. Therefore, rent is the basis of the formation of classes generally understood as conflict groups. In addition, the article discusses rent, which is not connected with positions in the social structure, but is based on natural abilities.
Keywords: structural theory of inequality, rent, rent seeking, rent based on natural abilities.

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Martyanov, Victor

Abstract of the article: Transformation of the capitalist world-system leads to the correction of mechanisms maintaining political order of modern societies. The exhaustion of the market model of development, which was aimed at continuous growth, defines the contours of the future society without economic growth. Technological automation and robotics fills this society with superfluous people simultaneously turning it into society without labor, but with the growing precarious classes (precariat, unemployed, and various minorities). Scarcity of resources on free markets leads to the rise of protectionism and nationalism as well as to the replacement of the mechanisms of market competition with political and forceful redistribution of markets and resource flows. At the same time, there is a crisis of the welfare state where the reduction of its resource replenishment accompanies the growth of groups dependent on rents. The result is a rental political order, in which hierarchical models of distributive exchanges supplant the market communications, while social stratification increasingly depends not on the market class creation, but on the access of citizens and social groups to the distribution of rental resources. Behavior based on the search of guaranteed status rapidly becomes more profitable strategy than risky business activities or the desire to take a favorable position in the labor market. The drift to the rental democracy model is determined by the fact that the state is more than before is engaged in direct redistribution of resources bypassing the market. The peculiarity of this model is that the competition for the access to resources is played out not between economic classes, but between statist groups. Thus, the distribution of resources increasingly shifts from the market to the state. The competition is carried out not according to the criteria of the market value, but according to its utility for the state. Within the model of rental democracy, success is connected with the rise of a social group in the hierarchy as a condition for expanding the access to resources. However, while solving the accrued structural  сontradictions and forming new powerful social groups, the rental transformation gives rise to the new conflicts between new estate-rental nucleus of society and market groups pushed to its periphery.
Keywords: modernity, market, rent-seeking, rental society, democracy, social structure, stratification, estates, centre-periphery, global future.

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Safonov, Aleksander , Tumanova, Anastasiya

Abstract: The authors explore legal consciousness of Russian higher bureaucracy during the First Russian revolution expressed in its views on the problem of advancing political and legal system. They examine the role bureaucracy played in the course of defining the content of civil liberties and, more broadly, in the political development of the Russian Empire towards democratization. The authors analyze the impact of bureaucracy on the process of decision-making and policymaking. Bureaucracy is treated as the architect of the political and legal modernization of the Russian Empire as the country of “delayed modernization” at the beginning of the last century. The article demonstrates that policy of exercising individual rights and freedoms gave rise to confrontation between conservative officials who were skeptical toward the possibility of implementing civil liberties in the time of revolution and weakening of monarchical power, and reform-minded bureaucrats who were ready to create foundations for the «renewed order». Growing in conditions of deep political and legal reforms in the last decade of the Russian monarchy, the conflict between bureaucratic elites made impact over the policy of granting freedoms, turning it into the result of fragile compromise among the highest power hierarchy. In search for modernization of institutions, laws
and procedures, the enlightened bureaucrats defended the projects of reforms, according to which a person was given the opportunity to exercise his/her rights and to obtain certain guarantees for their implementation from the state, as well as the protection by the judicial system. Traditionalist views of conservative officials limited the content of reforms and adapted them to the conditions of the existing legal order. The reforms aimed at the implementation of civil liberties became the result of the views and influences of both progressive and traditionalist-minded bureaucrats.
Keywords: bureaucracy; individual rights and freedoms; constitutional reform; beginning of XX century; Russian Empire.

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Abstract: The article is dedicated to the systematic analysis of federal and regional legislation, which regulates issues connected with legal status of administrative territorial subjects with the special status (ATSSS) in the system of federative and municipal structure of the Russian Federation. Researching different points of view of constitutionalists, the author discloses features of legal status of the category of administrative territorial subjects including administrative territorial subjects with the special status’ features. The author discloses problems and offers solutions including the revision of existing rules and the adaptation of the new federal law, which is aimed at regulation of some issues appearing in administrative territorial subjects with the special status. The position of governmental departments and local governments in administrative territorial subjects with the special status are considered as the separate issue. Because each subject of the RF determines its own organizational model of governmental departments and local governments, each position with further identification of its strong and weak sides is considered and analyzed; specific changes of norms of the Federal legislation on local self-government are proposed. The author speaks about the creation of «municipal national okrug» with additional rights, which are aimed at saving cultural originality and traditional way of life of native minorities of the ATSSS areas in the Northern part of Russia.
Keywords: administrative territorial subjects with the special status; autonomy; autonomous region; national territorial administrative autonomy; national features of indigenous people; territorial structure of the RF; association of the subjects of the RF.

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