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2018
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RESEARCH
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Philosophy

MARTIN HEIDEGGER: FROM PHENOMENOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS TO PHENOMENOLOGY OF BEING

Ishchenko Natalia

Abstract: The research deals with transformation of the subject matter of Husserl's phenomenology in Martin Heidegger's philosophy. The research explores why even with remarkably similar philosophic opinions shared by Husserl and Heidegger the latter had to give up his position of a teacher and to express differently the subject matter of the phenomenology. While answering this question, two approaches are undertaken. The first one deals with the phenomenology as transcendent philosophy: the research underlines that transcendental ego is a complicated matter, which eventually revealed itself as ultimate. The second approach calls for an entire change of the phenomenology. This approach embodies the fact that a taking-out-of-the-context method cannot be applicable for all areas of reality. Thus, the dimensions of reality that practical aspects deal with, including taking out of the context, are basically inaccessible for being taken out of the context. This is why the demand for Being comes to be essential. As a result of this demand, Husserl's phenomenology loses its position for, from now on, first, Being itself takes the place of transcendental I; second, intentionality appears to be an existential attitude; third, phenomenology as well as the truth gets a new meaning; forth, a concept of transcendental philosophy modifies substantially. Thus, the research explains the point that in passing over the basic settings of Husserl's philosophy it was crucial that Heidegger realized a priority role Being itself plays as regards to any means of Being, including pure consciousness.

Keywords: phenomenology, ontology, hermeneutics, Husserl, Heidegger, being, consciousness, transcendentalism.

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PERSONALITY AND CHURCH: PROBLEM OF SPIRITUAL FORMATION IN RUSSIAN RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY (F. DOSTOEVSKY, V. SOLOV’YOV, L. TOLSTOY)

Vasechko Vyacheslav

Abstract: Every religious thinker eventually faces ideological challenge: What is the interrelation between his confessional identity and freedom of thought? Does his (or any other individual) religious identity promotes or prevents personal self-determination? I. Kant in his treatise “Religion within the Limits of the Reason Only” indicated key points where the church as an institute has a chance to deviate from its true mission and to turn into closed corporation whose members hinder spiritual development of their flock. Referring to Kant, three central figures of the Russian religious and philosophical thought of the 19th century vary in determining the status of the church in society and, accordingly, the personal attitude toward the church, as well as in prospects of its socio-political and moral-cultural reforming. Being mostly loyal to the church, Dostoevsky's project does not significantly affect the socio-political status quo and the church hierarchy, and restricts the space of personal development to the Orthodox format. In Dostoevsky’s view, the Orthodox church has the potential to serve as a spiritual reference point not only for the Russian people but also for humanity. Project of V. Solovyov, which anticipates ecumenism, is more critical toward the Orthodox church. It presumes a wide dialogue and organizational unification of the Christian denominations in a single church as a power of the process of building society of “free theocracy”, and humanity’s transition toward the state of “God-humanity”. The most radical project of Leo Tolstoy justifies the need to move away from any national and confessional identity, accessing the world-historical experience of the cultures of East and West, and purely rationalistic interpretation of moral absolutes. These three projects have their followers among contemporary Russian and foreign intellectuals. Their adherents continue traditions of national philosophy over socio-political, moral and philosophical problems.

Keywords: church, Orthodoxy, Kant, Dostoevsky, Vladimir Solov’yov, Leo Tolstoy, personality, confessionalism, false serving, rationalization, free theocracy.

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HOMO POLITICUS IN MODERN AGE

Skorobogatskaja, Natalja , Skorobogatskij, Vjacheslav

Abstract: The article considers the determinative significance of politics in the process of humane type development in the transition epoch from Middle Ages to the Modern Age. The system approach is a methodological basis of the theme research. Its implementation allows to group social, cultural, mental and historic factors of humane existence around system-forming basis, the function of which is the discretion of politics. Special aspect of the methodological method undertaken in the article is that provision of a rationale for the specific role of politics in a new humane type development is carried out a posteriori. Having defined a problem, the authors introduce an assumption initially based on the arguments of empiric character. Theoretical soundness of the assumption becomes apparent as some results are achieved and conclusions are formulated. The following results are obtained as part of the study. First, the individuality model typical for the Renaissance is reconstructed as the sphere of free self-existence of an individual where he implements his autonomy and totality of natural rights. Second, the conditions and causes of the origin of the phenomenon “the negative side of titanism” are found out, first of all, orientation to the lack of foundation (self- foundation) of a man of the Renaissance. Third, the mechanism of cardinal transformation of the antique model of politics, and origin of new politics that included “bare life” of the Prince into its structure are determined. Finally, the article proves the concept that Machiavelli’s Prince can be considered as the matrix of mass production of homo politicus of Modern Age. The authors attempted to bring out the significance of the problem of homo politicus of Modern Age as theoretical and methodological context, in which nontrivial subject and categorical relations between philosophical approaches of I. Kant, M. Heidegger, M. Foucault, and G. Agamben are determined. Analysis of this kind is necessary in order to prove special role of philosophy (metaphysics) in the existence of particular humane type. Accordingly, the main requirement to philosophy is to proceed from the combination of universal and historic as the basic principle. The novelty of the suggested approach and obtained results is connected with the provision of a rationale for the leading role of politics in forming the main characteristics of cultural and historic type of a man of Modern Age.

Keywords: project of humanism, “negative side of titanism”, “bare life”, power, Prince, homo politicus, politics as Modern Age destiny.

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Political science

E-GOVERNMENT AND E-SERVICES: OPERATIONALIZATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE IDEOLOGY AND СITIZENS’ TACTICS

Trakhtenberg, Anna

Abstract: The article deals with the question of citizens’ adoption of electronic forms of interaction with the authorities. It is shown that the concept of “e-government” is generated by the New Public Management (state as corporation offering public goods). Due to operationalization, “e-government” is transformed into a set of “e-services” as specific species of public goods. E-services must displace traditional ones (logic of exclusion). The author using the thesis of the asymmetrical relationship between the authorities and citizens hypothesizes that citizens’ “tactics of the weak” (M. de Certeau) are based not on the exclusion but in the inclusion (“bricolage”) of e-services in the traditional arch of action, the core of which is an informal interaction with the authorities. The data of the sociological survey conducted in the Sverdlovsk region confirms this hypothesis. Most successful “bricolage” of traditional and e-services is typical for representatives of the urban “middle class”: young, educated, with prestigious employment. They are the main beneficiaries of the transition to “e-government”.

Keywords: e-government, technology adoption, operationalization, “tactics of the weak”, beneficiaries.

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MEDIA CONVERGENCE: MAIN APPROACHES TO DEFINITION

Yufereva, Anastasia

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the process of media convergence and crucial characteristics and typology of this process. The author studies both foreign and domestic approaches in order to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article is concerned with specific and significant differences in approaches in connection with the understanding of media convergence. There are few explanations of differences between these representations. First, foreign scholars explains media convergence as a consequence of the development of the computer industry in the 20th century. M. McLuhan, Canadian professor of English literature, was a pioneer on this topic; he wrote several monographs on it. Through the vision of a generalized approach to the electric structuring of the world and his theory of technological determinism, M. McLuhan provided a foundation for understanding the process of media convergence. To explore this phenomenon, he used the concept of “implosion”, which means erasing the line between different systems (not only in the area of mass media). Other approaches differ significantly in depth because media convergence is studied not only in a technological context, but also in a social one, allowing evaluation of cultural and social issues and the communication process from different points of view. Domestic scholars analyzes the process of media convergence primarily in the area of mass media. Researchers note that this process is related to the integration of formerly isolated mass media (print, electronic), as well as to the development of the organizational structure of media companies, etc. Notable foreign scholars study media convergence as a multidimensional process. Consequently, research potential is greatly enhanced.

Keywords: media convergence, age of globalization, convergence of mass media, Internet.

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MASS MEDIA AS A TOOL OF STATE INFORMATION POLICY: MODELS OF AUTHORITY AND MEDIA INTERACTION

Zerkal', Daria

Abstract: State information policy is an important aspect of governance in the information society. Measures of the state information policy are implemented through various institutions such as public relations, analytical centers, the institutes of culture. However, media is the main mechanism of the implementation of the state information policy. Media are capable of creating an information agenda, which plays critical role in shaping public opinion. Therefore, control of mass media and the content of messages transmitted through them is one of the main tasks of the state information policy. Media of different levels forms media system, which requires different management approaches. The article describes basic mechanisms of media management in the implementation of the state information policy. The author describes various levels of media systems and analyzes characteristics of media on each of these levels. The article provides classification and description of the basic mechanisms of media management in the implementation of the state information policy.

Keywords: state information policy, mass media, information agenda, media system.

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Law

CONCEPT AND TYPES OF MODELS OF MODERN DOMESTIC JURISPRUDENCE: TEORETICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH

Pletnikov, Victor

Abstract: In the article based on the analysis of natural-science researches and works of representatives of the humanities, the concept of the “model”, which is used in contemporary domestic jurisprudence and developed within analytical jurisprudence and legal positivism, is formulated. In jurisprudence, the model is the intellectual and strong-willed description sufficiently repeating essential properties of the modelled object, process or the phenomenon of state and legal life created under the influence of full set of objective and subjective factors of social development. In addition, the main characteristics of model in jurisprudence have been allocated and revealed: it is directly connected with the subject carrying out knowledge of one or another object, process or phenomenon of state and legal life; only as a result of its activity its emergence is possible; it sufficiently duplicates essential properties of the modelled object, process or the phenomenon of state and legal life; it includes the description (characteristic) of one or another element, which is part of uniform system, making a basis of the corresponding object, process or the phenomenon of state and legal life; it is formed in something homogeneous and functional only with the accounting of the whole set of objective and subjective factors of social development, which have to be considered by representatives of jurisprudence in order to carry out researches of state and legal reality. The conclusion is drawn that the concrete volume of contents of these characteristics is defined by a kind of model and the functions, which are carried out by this model. Special attention is paid to the types of models in jurisprudence, especially to those of them, which directly follow from the main characteristics and allow disclosing the content of the concept of the “model in jurisprudence”. A conclusion that models in jurisprudence can have various nature is formulated, and as a result, it plays various role in development of jurisprudence, improvement of the public relations. For jurisprudence, models to which analysis the paramount attention has to be paid, have the greatest value legally significant (jurisprudential or doctrinal). Other models in jurisprudence have a number of restrictions from the point of view of their implementation in practice.

Keywords: model in jurisprudence, legally significant model, jurisprudence.

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DEFENDER OF INDIGENOUS RIGHTS IN REGIONS OF RUSSIA: FORMATION OF THE INSTITUTE

Filippova, Natalya

Abstract: The article considers the process of establishment of human-rights ombudsman institution (the Ombudsman for Indigenous Peoples’ rights) in federal subjects of the RF. The author defines its chronological period and political geography. New tendencies in the development of the federal subjects’ constitutional law are compared with those of federal institutions of representation and human rights, alongside with the practices of nationalities representation under socialism. The author underlines the fact that federal subjects in trying to solve the problem of indigenous peoples’ rights are face by two institutional options. Firstly, it is the choice between state and public status of the Ombudsman for Indigenous peoples’ rights. Secondly, if the choice is made in favor of the state Ombudsman, it results in the choice between the establishment of a special ombudsman (along with an ombudsman for general competence rights), and in the renunciation of a new post. Instead, an ombudsman for general competence rights is entitled with a new list of functions and powers in indigenous peoples’ rights protection. The author conducts comparative analysis of regional legislation and offers her own classification of Ombudsmen for Indigenous Peoples’ rights in Russia’s federal subjects. The classification based on the state authority formation procedure criterion includes the following models of empowering an ombudsman as an independent official: parliamentary (Krasnoyarsk Krai), mixed (Kamchatka Krai) and administrative (Altai Republic). Ugra model of indigenous peoples’ rights protection is also singled out. It presupposes a wider list of powers for the ombudsman of the general competence, the ombudsman for human rights in Khanty-Mansyisk autonomous okrug-Ugra. The author indicates the main characteristics of the legal status of the Ombudsman for Indigenous Peoples’ rights established in some Russian regions, and includes a list of this official’s powers. 

Keywords: commissioner for the protection of the rights and freedoms of citizen in Member of Russian Federation; Commissioner for the rights of peoples; indigenous peoples; defender of indigenous peoples.

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