19 (3)
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2019
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catalogue – 43669
ANTINOMIES
Foundation of journal. Issue topics About journal

Part I
Academic Mobility and Scientifi c Communication
Kokoreva, A., Barsukov, A. Science Diplomacy and Academic Mobility as Soft Power Elements
The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of science diplomacy potential in the context of Soft Power strategy. The author examines the main types of modern science diplomacy and its connection with the academic mobility. The basic principles of each science diplomacy direction are revealed. It was also emphasized that recently the role of science diplomacy has been steadily increasing due to new economic, political and social challenges. Examples of the international scientifi c cooperation of some countries were given according to each direction. At the same time, attention was drawn to the examples of China and Russia in the field of creating and developing humanitarian infrastructure. It was emphasized that the development of humanitarian infrastructure contributes to the creation of new channels and forms of communication. The cooperation of China in the fi elds of science and education in the framework of the initiative “One belt – one road” with various countries, including Russia, is considered. Attention was paid to the work of the Confucius Institute on the exchange of students, teachers and the spread of the Chinese language and culture. The Siberian Federal District, practically the city of Novosibirsk, was chosen as one of the examples illustrating the activities of this organization. The article provides an analysis of the results of a survey of students of higher educational institutions who study Chinese in Novosibirsk. It was concluded that China actively and fruitfully implements its “soft power” programs throughout the world, including Russian regions. The data on the science and technology cooperation of the Siberian Federal District with China are given. The cooperation of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Eurasian integration project as a strategy of “soft power” is considered. The data on the activities of the Russian Federation in the areas of public diplomacy are given. It was concluded that despite the successes of the Russian Federation “soft power”, it is necessary to pay attention to ideological refl ection and include issues of science diplomacy and education in the integration agenda.
Keywords: science diplomacy, “soft power”, academic mobility, China, “One belt – one road” initiative, Russia, Eurasian integration.

Pruzinin, A., Polyushkevich, O. The Impact of Academic Mobility on the Reproduction of Human Capital in the Region

The uniform development of human capital in the regions of the Russian Federation is an urgent task for two reasons. The first is that a high level of human capital allows the regions to move quickly towards an independent economic system that benefi ts both the region and the state. It has become possible while the reproduction of human capital is an advanced management practice giving maximum GDP growth and social development. The second reason involves the key role that higher education plays in the development of a “cognitive” type of personality (the type on which the main stake is made). It’s important to mention that predominantly education centers are concentrated in the European part of Russia. This fact gives a rise to a strong academic “brain outfl ow” from Siberia and the Far East, which results in chances vanishing for these territories to provide its own economic infrastructure with the necessary human resources for social and economic development. Considering solutions to the problem, the author analyzes the experience of the quasi-corporate university network of the Soviet Union – its structure, hierarchy of subordination and distribution of functions between universities, as well as the mechanisms for the distribution of graduates to “great construction projects”. The second important step is to consider the state of higher education both in periods of the collapse of the USSR and in modern Russia. The shocks had occurred largely explain today’s problems of the quality of higher education, associated not only with the universities themselves, but also with government policy. Examples of the instruments for adaptation strategies of universities from 2003–2011 are also provided.  The detailed analysis demonstrates what scenarios for the development of Russian education are possible and what is necessary to do in order to avoid “a point of no return” in difference between regions development; strengthen the position of our education on the international level; level academic fl ows within the country.
Keywords: human capital, academic mobility, migration, education reform, regional development.

Sushchenko, A., Sudakova, A. Integration Processes in Eurasian Economic Union: How Do They Affect Foreign Student Mobility in Russian Federation
The article is devoted to the integration processes in the EAEU, based on the network interaction principles, which makes able to consider the relations between these countries from the stakeholder approach perspective. In the post-Soviet real integration between states (like Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus) is enhanced by expanding the EAEU partnerships network with new members having joined it: Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The authors investigate the opinion of prospective students and real foreign students of the EAEU countries on the educational and professional development trends in Russia, in the Sverdlovsk region in particular, based on survey data and in-depth interviews conducted in 2014–2015. These data analysis was supplemented by the Eurasian Economic Commission open sources, taking for the period of 2010–2016), including the key economic indicators (mutual trade in goods) and social indicators refl ecting the labor market situation (number of unemployed, job vacancy statistics) as well as Rosstat data on the EAEU students number studying in Russians universities in the period 2013–2016. The integration processes content and intensity are usually associated with the economic development and human capital quality in the country. All these factors, like the country’s attractiveness, free labor movement possibilities, as well as high quality education and employment prospects for young specialists with different qualifications may increase Russian industrial potential. According to the research analyses, the purposeful forming the students’ motivation of the EAEU for getting higher education in Russian universities would satisfy the country’s economy needs in the labor resources. Increasing the Russian products exports in the EAEU countries with a relatively weak industry, an outfl ow of local labor resources (including young professionals) can be observed. The research results showed that approximately the half of the master`s degree students of the EAEU countries are focused on the employment in Russia that is especially true for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan citizens. The research results are applicable to the subsequent stages of cooperation and policies improvement in the EAEU in the field of higher education, labor mobility problems, labor resources training taking into account the labor market needs as well as for effective investment in human capital.
Keywords: Eurasian Economic Union, regional integration, foreign students mobility, labor force, employment, common market, human capital.

Shibarshina, S. Online Academic Social Networks and “Digital Mobility”
The article focuses on the study of transformations faced by scientifi c communication in the context of digital mobility and dispersed knowledge. The author describes digital mobility through online academic social networks, which have become a new stage in the evolution of scientifi c communication with researchers presented as transformed actors having new situational communicative possibilities. Two cases are discussed to illustrate potential efficacy of remote collaborations between researchers. The article also depicts and interprets basic features of such interactions, such as a network nature; communication “here-and-now”; instant messaging; mobility of ideas, methods, approaches, and solutions; open access to information and its evaluation; blurring the boundaries of previously stable social ties and relations, and overcoming cultural barriers. The author concludes that online academic networks are potentially enabling Robert Merton’s communalism as an ethical norm and can be more or less described in terms of dispersed knowledge. They encourage a communicative transgression and, through explicit and implicit behavior rules, “softly” impose an “ideal” user type aimed at a social success. Along with it, the author problematizes a point that social networks might be estimated as full-fl edged sharing spaces: they lack a necessary institutional coercion and all the necessary conditions to share implicit knowledge. Furthermore, some potential challenges of digital scientifi c communications are elucidated, including cognitive expectations of signifi cant researchers’ presence on the network; the depersonifi cation of scientific ideas; the possibility of the future institutional coercion to actively participate in digital communication.
Keywords: digital mobility, scientifi c communication, distributed knowledge, online academic networks, communication here-and-now, sharing spaces, communicative transgression.
Part II
Cultural and Symbolic Politics as Soft Power Instruments
Lazareva, K. Cultural Policy as an Attribute of Republic of Korea’s Soft Power Strategy Success
This article describes the Korean experience of forming an attractive image of the state in the fi eld of diasporal practices, culture and language promotion. The work is devoted to the analysis of the main institutions of Korean soft power potential: opening of Korean cultural centers, organization of international exchange programs for young people, teaching Korean abroad, supporting of compatriots. The Republic of Korea uses soft power mechanisms as an important instrument to acquire leading positions in world politics, economics and culture. The Republic of Korea discovered the possibilities of soft power in the late 90’s of the XX century. The cultural policy of the new president was radically different from that of previous presidents, as President Kim recognized the cultural industry potential which can be used to promote the country’s economic growth in general. While still a presidential candidate, Kim Youngsam voiced the ideas of the “country globalization” and including the Republic of Korea in global international processes. The reform led to a general national upsurge, the growth of patriotism and economic activity. Cultural policy continued playing an important role during the reign of President of the Republic of Korea Kim Daejung (1998–2003). During this period, the concept of “Dynamic Korea” was developed, the aim of which was to offer the international community a modern image of the country. This made possible for newly elected president Roh Moohyun (2003–2008) to reorient the strategic focus of the Republic of Korea to Northeast Asia. He also expressed his willingness to turn the Republic of Korea into a “cultural superpower”. New President Lee Myung-bak (2008–2012) has signifi cantly strengthened the dynamics set by his predecessors. As we can see, the Korean national brand has signifi cantly improved since the creation of the Presidential Council for National Branding in 2009. The Committee was some kind of a “dispatcher” in all programs related to promoting a positive image of the Republic of Korea. At present, in pursuit of its political and economic goals, the Republic of Korea operates through the promotion of a positive image of its country instead of a rigid coercion to cooperate.
Keywords: traditional culture, Republic of Korea, soft power, diaspora, culture.


Maslova, E., Tkach, D. The Contribution of the Italian Cities and Regions to Forming the National Soft Power Potential (Case of the Italian Gastro-Diplomacy)
The article is devoted to the contribution of Italian cities and regions to the enhancement of the country’s soft power and to building graphic, historic and socio-economic premises favoring the making of the national impression by the regional level of the Italian state system. Among several possible directions of such impact, the authors focus on the Italian “gastro-diplomacy” (enogastro-diplomacy). The defi nition and the roots of the culinary diplomacy are discussed, as well as the features of the modern trend towards its development as one of the components of multivector diplomacy. The article discusses Italian academic and political discourse connected with the introduction of gastro-diplomacy into the general complex of foreign policy means, outlines some key functioning initiatives on promoting gastro-diplomacy, and considers the contribution of Italian cities and regions to its conduction with distinguishing passive and active potential. The authors reach the conclusion that the impressive potential of the contribution of Italian cities and regions to the construction of the national image in terms of gastro-diplomacy is currently only at the beginning stage of its realization, which can be explained by the recent conceptualization of gastro-diplomacy inside the country. The plan called “Food Act” was adopted in 2016 and comprises 10 points describing the direction of the activity on promoting Italian quality cuisine, in particular the one supported by the regional authorities. Given the adequate application of the country’s foreign policy instruments, a rapid realization of the potential of Italian cities and regions in culinary diplomacy can be expected.
Keywords: gastro-diplomacy, culinary diplomacy, soft power, Italian cities and regions, paradiplomacy.

Rusakova, O., Kovba, D., Gribovod, E. Cultural Diplomacy as an Instrument of Soft Power of the SCO Countries
The article is devoted to the study of cultural diplomacy
as an important soft power instrument used by the countries
of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Nowadays, soft
strategies are used by many countries in order to promote their brand,
create an attractive image, encourage international partners to cooperate
and increase confi dence. There are some features that characterize
soft power strategy: the long-term impact, the impossibility
of complete control by the government, the need for the legitimacy
of the policy being pursued, and others. The authors argue that diplomacy
is one of the constituent elements of soft power, its subspecies.
Culture (traditional, classical, mass culture), which is predominantly
included in the process of cultural infl uence and exchange, also
acts as a kind of soft power. It identifi es measures that the state can
take to increase the effectiveness of cultural diplomacy and increase
its soft power potential: improving the coordination of institutions
engaged in cultural diplomacy, improving the quality of personnel
potential, fi nding new sources of funding, maintaining contacts with
young people and others. The authors point out that since the formation
of the SCO in 2001, one of the priority tasks of the participating
countries has become the implementation of mutually benefi cial
cooperation in cultural, educational, social projects. It is shown that
the SCO member countries have a huge stock of total soft power.
The active use of soft instruments allows the organization to remain
fl exible, mobile, inclusive, open and sustainable, to form a special
model of regional cooperation in the fi eld of security, economics
and maintaining cultural and humanitarian contacts.
Keywords:
cultural diplomacy, soft power, international relations, SCO,
humanitarian cooperation.

Tabarintseva-Romanova, K., Postnikov, V. Cultural Rights as a Soft Power Instrument (Bolzano Experience).
Why should linguistic minorities representatives be given autonomy
rights in the state, where they live? The problem of ensuring
the linguistic rights of national minorities is quite common: virtually
every state has groups of people who differ from the majority in language,
culture, traditions and identify themselves with national minorities
in order to preserve their identity. Thus minority’s protec
tion is provided on the condition that religious, cultural and linguistic
identity are integral elements of what it means to be human. This
article analyzes the evolution of the legal protection of linguistic
minorities in Italy and their effectiveness in combating the protection
of languages from extinction. The main reasons for the changes
in the legislation concerning the issues of national minorities and
their right to linguistic self-identifi cation are summarized. This article
is devoted to the analysis of the processes of evolution of legal
linguistic minorities in Italy, and their effectiveness in combating
the protection of languages from “extinction”. The main problems
in the legislation concerning issues of national minorities and their
right to language self-identifi cation are briefl y described.
Keywords:
cultural rights, linguistic minorities, Italy, Italian, soft power.
Tabarintseva-Romanova, K., Uscakova, A. Cultural Paradiplomacy of the Italian Regions
The article is devoted to the consideration of the international
activities of the Italian regions in the fi eld of culture. To start with,
a brief description of contemporary international politics is given.
The defi nition of the phenomenon of paradiplomacy is given. Attention
is focused on the change of the term itself, namely the neutralization
of its connotation. The following is a brief description
of the Italian system of interaction: the region is a center in the fi eld
of culture. The Italian regions are explored as subjects actively participating
in the cultural diplomacy of the European Union. First of all
the Italian regions are included in the work of ‘Assessorato Cultura’,
which implies the existence of special cultural departments existing
in each of the twenty regions of the Republic and dealing with issues
in this fi eld. The regions are involved primarily in activities related
to the development of their region in the fi eld of culture and education,
but also these are joint sometimes large-scale and sometimes
not very projects organized in the framework of interaction with
other countries in the EU or beyond. For more than two decades,
the regions of Italy have been actively involved in diplomatic activities;
many of them identify themselves as subjects of the European
integration process. The absence of a separate ministry of culture
is compensated by active participation of the regions in the implementation
of pan-European cultural programs, ahead of other European
states in this indicator. An assessment is made of the participation
of the Italian regions in various interstate projects, not only
in culture, but also in education: these are the programs “European
Capital of Culture”, “Creative Europe”, “Erasmus+”, etc. In addition
to intra-European contacts, the regions of Italy build their own
relations with regions of other countries, including from other continents,
as well as with leading international organizations, such
as UNESCO.
Keywords:
cultural policy, paradiplomacy, Italian regions, European Union,
soft power.
Fan, I. Soft Representation of Hard Power:Real Man in Russian Symbolic Politics
The article is devoted to the problem of identifying the function
of the Real Man myth in Russian politics. The methodology used
by the author involved several approaches, i. e. the theory of symbolic
politics, an approach considering symbolic politics as a discursive
practice of soft power, the theory of gender identity by J. Butler,
the method of gender studies by R. Connell, as well as an interpretation
of symbolic politics as a ‘dramatic’ element of power communications.
The article reveals various aspects and effects of the symbolic
politics embodied in the offi cial discourse, state propaganda
and mass culture. The features of the invariant model of masculinity
are also presented. An attention is drawn to the fact that this model,
being mostly based on the stereotypes of public consciousness, does
not correspond to the trends of political and social modernization.
The stages of transformation of the Real Man model in the post-Soviet
symbolic politics framework are elucidated, as well as contradictions
of the hegemonic masculinity model are revealed. The author
suggests the myth of the Present within the framework of the Russian
government symbolic politics is designed to reproduce the offi
cial power discourse and to legitimize the existing political regime.
Besides that, it also performs the function of imposing a positive
interpretation of one-way character of communication between
the power and the society, the approval of the hegemonic masculinity
monopoly, preservation of the existing gender order and discrimination
against women.
Keywords:
masculinity, symbolic politics, soft power, discourse of power,
gender, gender order.
Part III
State and Municipal Management through the Prism of the Theories of Mobility and Soft Power
Babkin, A., Fedoseeva, A., Pankratov, S. Mobility Brakes or Existing Problems of Electronic Participation in the Volgograd Region
The article is devoted to the study of the state and prospects
of electronic participation development in the Volgograd region,
disclosing channels, levels and goals of participation. The channels
mentioned in the research are mobile phones, personal computers
and interactive television; the levels are counselling, information
and active participation, depending on the model of communication.
The fi rst two belong to the type of interaction “from top to bottom“,
the latter assumes the nature of interaction between society and power
institutions “from bottom to top“. The objectives are to involve
the population in the discussion, to inform about the political situation
and to empower citizens in determining the current political
agenda. The negative factors infl uencing electronic participation
of citizens at the regional level are also revealed.
The most popular instruments of electronic participation
are identifi ed: two of the least interactive-surveys of the population
using ICT and providing access to information. Solutions for existing
problems have been developed and presented, which, when
implemented in practice not only in the Volgograd region, but also
in other regions, have the opportunity to increase the effi ciency
and popularity of electronic participation. The points developed by
the authors are to create the regional Internet offi ces in social networks;
to use messengers for communication between government
and citizens; to practice monitoring of the effectiveness of services
and information provided; to develop and maintain existing electronic
platforms and active information about opportunities for interaction
with authorities or their representatives. It is concluded
that electronic participation in the Volgograd region is at the stage
of development and further prospects depend on the use of instruments
available and the readiness of the population to use electronic
services as a channel of communication with the authorities.
Keywords:
e-participation, e-government, e-democracy, information technology,
internet, social media, mobility.
Kraeva, D., Isakov, A. Speed of Public Services Provision as a Criterion of Management Mobility: Russian and Foreign Experience
The article is devoted to the analysis of the effectiveness
of public services in Russia. The models of the implementation
of this concept, as well as specifi c examples of implementation
are disclosed. The focus of the article is to consider the concept
of e-governance as the basis of information mobility of the state
in the fi eld of public administration. This concept is decomposed
into two distinct phenomena: e-government and e-participation.
By e-government the totality of the infrastructure for the interaction
of society and the state in electronic form is meant, and by e-participation
– its relevance and the interest of society to participate
in public administration.
There are three main models of public administration mobility
in the world: continental, Anglo-American and Asian. The continental
model is characterized by a large infl uence of supra-state
entities (e. g. the European Union). The main trend in terms of this
model is the unifi cation of information interaction systems among
all countries and bringing it to a single, supranational system.
The Anglo-American model is based on the principle of eliminating
redundant procedures. Special attention is paid to the comfort
of interaction with the state. The emphasis on dialogue with citizens
leads to the emergence of concepts such as e-citizens (e-citizen)
and e-business (e-business). The Asian model is aimed at the universal
universalization and standardization of electronic solutions.
First of all, the interests of the state administration are taken into
account, the priority is given to the massization of the use of information
technologies. The social aspect, however, can be completely
ignored.
In the end, the authors analyze the features of the Russian information
mobility model. It is noted that electronic methods of interaction
between the state and society are relatively new. Theoretically,
the system is based on three principles: accessibility, versatility,
comfort. The implementation of e-government itself is not comprehensive,
not all types of public services can be obtained in electronic
form. The proposed measures to improve the level of service
in the Russian Federation.
Keywords: public services, e-government, informatization of public administration, efficiency, information technology, state.

Part IV
Soft Power: Mexican Point of View*
Gustavo Garduño Oropeza. Soft power, Form and Gatopardismo: The Rhetorics of Revolutionary Institutional Party in Mexico

This paper uses three categories related with the concept of soft power (authority, loyalty and laziness) to describe Mexico government party’s (PRI) rhetorical strategy. It also aims to criticize its discourse as based in ambiguity and emotivity, both understood as keys to avoid citizen’s judgement or rationality during elections.
Keywords: language, Soft Power, criticism, PRI, authority, loyalty, laziness.

Oliver Gabriel Hernández Lara. Critique of Soft Power from the “Non-Being Areas”
The present paper discusses the image of power that comes from categories such as Soft Power and Smart Power, not so much from the theoretical and epistemological level, but from the practical and political consequences that these concepts generate. Thus, taking up Michel Foucault’s proposals and in dialogue with specific authors and realities in Latin America, we try to generate a critique of the notion of Soft Power in three aspects: as a concept produced within the disciplinary confines of International Relations, as a concept constructed under the imprint of American domination, and in so far as the image of the power that it reproduces.
Keywords: soft power, smart power, neoextractivism, Latin America, exception state, biopolitics.

Robert Stingl, Adriana Franco Vargas. Criticism of Soft Power as a Method of Geopolitical Interests Peaceful Enforcement
Soft power is seen as a peaceful form of geopolitical interests enforcement. Joseph Nye formed this concept in the 90s, and put  it in clear contrast to hard power, which operates with tougher methods such as war, threat, bribery and corruption. It has historically been the first option in solving international conflicts. However, since the consequential damages are not foreseeable and they usually results in a short-term but not long-them solution, a rethinking had to be done. How far Soft Power contributes to a better conflict resolution is questionable and the subject of this text.
Keywords: soft power, hard power, eastern enlargement, European union, geopolitics.