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catalogue – 43669
Until 01.01.2019 - Scientific Yearbook of the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 2686-7206 (Print)

ISSN 2686-925X (Оnlinе)

Part I
The Semantic Diversity of the Concept of «Mobility» and Types of Mobility
Arpentieva, M., Gorelova, I., Kirichkova, M., Braytseva S. The Age of Mobility: the Problem of Violent and Non-Violent Types of Intercultural Relations

The article is devoted to the study of problems of intercultural relations, including in the context of limiting the state “monopoly” to make vital decisions for people and nations for them and instead  of them, relying only on their own interests and promoting violence as the only form of human relations. At the same time, attention was drawn to the fact that on the threshold of a Third World War, countries and communities are looking for non-violent or least destructive ways of survival and relationships. These include soft power migrations. Migration processes from the end of the twentieth century are all gaining intensity and diversity, along with them theories of migration and types of intercultural relations are multiplying. At the same time, different types of relationships are described by different theories of migration. It was concluded that a number of more or less overlapping and more or less non-violent types of intercultural relations can be distinguished. A typology of non-violent and violent multicultural relations has been built. As the foundations of the typology, the line of cultural “trans-geographic” orientations, and the line of modernization and merging of cultures and production are highlighted. It is noted that it is important to give communities the opportunity to negotiate within themselves and among themselves directly, without applying violent measures and taking up a policy of supporting transculturalism: accepting and harmonizing all possible and probable options for being. In the line of cultural “transgeographic” orientations, such types of relations as westernization or colonization (europeanization and americanization), asiazation, the existence and formation of “third cultures” and interaction with them are highlighted; along the lines of modernization and the merging of cultures and production – modernization, globalization as mondialization, and creolization / transculturaralization. Keywords: westernization, asiazation, colonization, europeanization, americanization, glocalization, third cultures, modernization, globalization, mondialization, creolization, transculturalization.

Volodenkov, S.  Digital Mobility as a Phenomenon of the Contemporary Information Society

The article is devoted to the analysis of the phenomenon of digital mobility in the conditions of a contemporary networked information society formation. The article reveals the potential of the Internet as a global network space, as well as modern information and communication technologies as a tool for building and managing the potential of digital mobility. It is shown that the evolution of digital technologies of mass communication leads to significant changes in the traditional formats of social and political activity. It has been hypothesized that digital mobility is the result of established digital models of perception of the social-political reality and their corresponding models of mass behavior, as well as technological competencies that Internet users possess. The author also suggested that it is the carriers of specific online models of world perception and behavior that can act as full-fledged actors with the necessary competencies in the field of digital mobility. At the same time, the work draws attention not only to the constructive potential of digital mobility, but also identifies key challenges that accompany the technological transformation of contemporary society, to which the author relates the emerging digital inequality problem associated with uneven access to digital mass communication technologies, as well as growth manipulative capabilities of digital mobility management, which is determined by the development of technologies for collecting and analyzing data on personal activity in the Internet space. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop preventive measures to preclude the formation of a global society of digital inequality and the destruction of key democratic principles of the organization and functioning of a traditional society.
Keywords: network society, digital mobility, Internet space, mass behavior, political control, mass consciousness manipulation

Gaidai, V. The Role of the Concept of Mobility in the Development of Modern Marketing

The article is devoted to the study of weak elaboration of theoretical positions of relationship marketing at the present stage. The aim of the research is the development of theoretical positions and analysis of the essence and role of the mobility concept in marketing based on the theory of marketing relationships and interdisciplinary approach. The author uses the following research methods: analysis and synthesis, generalization, deductive method, comparison. The information basis was the works of domestic and foreign scientists. The article deals with the application of the concept of mobility in marketing science and practice. Special attention is paid to the current differences in approaches to the possible understanding of mobility in marketing. Among the approaches highlighted the understanding of mobility: as an element of the marketing mix and management system; as the basis of mobile marketing; as well as a factor of adaptability of relationships in marketing. The important distinctive features of each approach are revealed. The advantages and disadvantages of the so-called mobile marketing are clearly presented. The unity of the scientific community is emphasized in the fact that mobility is associated with the speed of reaction to changes in external conditions and with changes in the movement of any resources. It is also noted that mobility is an important characteristic of communications, which is not sufficiently taken into account by modern companies. The article presents a general understanding of the relationship adaptability. Based on the identified approaches, the representation of mobility in marketing as a factor of adaptability, along with flexibility is formulated. We noted the impact of works on sociology, psychology and Economics on the integration of the concept of “mobility” in marketing. Also, according to the results of the study, a matrix of adaptability of relationships between companies related to the factors of flexibility and mobility was developed. We have identified some tools specific to relationship mobility. We have laid the Foundation for the study of such components of the proposed concept of mobility as “speed” and “direction” of the development of relationships between companies. After the study, the significant role of the concept of mobility in the development of modern marketing was confirmed. In conclusion, the author noted open questions for scientific discussion on the topic of work and areas of further research.
Keywords: relationship marketing, change, mobility, mobile marketing, adaptability.

Gribovod, E. Mediatization of Politics in Mobility Theory

The article analyzes the process of mediatization of politics through the prism of the theory and discourse of mobility. The main stages of the process of mediatization of politics, which are associated with the development of traditional media and new media, are identified and analyzed. It is noted that the new media include various elements of the media space, namely social networks, blogs, network computer games, media art, messengers, etc. Theoretical and methodological approaches that study the phenomenon of the mediatization of politics are proposed. In the framework of the technological approach, the mediatization of politics is considered as an information tool aimed at adapting political and other actors, structures, etc. to new forms of media communication and information technology. From a position of a discursive approach, this phenomenon is defined as the process of transforming a political discourse into a media discourse. When analyzing the process of mediatization of the politics, the author turns to virtual mobility in order to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the political media space, that is, the media effect and media influence of the media, including social media on the political process and society as a whole. The author’s definition of virtual mobility as the movement of information, digital streams, the formation and change of communication channels has been developed. In addition, a hypothesis was proposed that, as a result of mediatization of politics, it is the new forms of organization of society – the “smart crowd” or the smart mob, swarm tactics, flash mobs, etc. can be considered as political actors. Finally, the author comes to the conclusion that, in the conditions of modern digital society, an analysis of the process of mediatization of politics using the theory of mobility allows identifying effective tools, communication channels, features and trends of the modern media sector, and also quantifies unique content, active authors, transferring data and information to form and maintain the media space of a political actor, structure, etc.
Keywords: mediatization, mediatization of politics, new mass media, mass media, social media.

Druzhinin, G. Corporation as a Phenomenon of Social Mobility of the Individual

The article is devoted to the study of the role of the influence of corporate organizations on the social mobility of the individual. At the same time, attention is drawn to the fact that social mobility can manifest itself both within the framework of the corporate organization itself, which is career growth, and outside the corporate structure, in a different way external mobility. External mobility is characterized to a greater extent by the fact that the person moves in the social structure itself, changing the social corporations
in which the person is. The features of vertical mobility associated with the emergence of social norms aimed at resolving conflict situations are identified. The emergence of such conflict resolution mechanisms is designed to reduce social tensions between two subjects with high social mobility and claim to occupy the same social status. It is indicated that a corporation is a community of persons, a social group that exists in society along with simple and complex social communities. It describes the main features of the corporation, which include the steady nature of corporate relations between the participants, formed through a common goal, the presence of the corporate hierarchy, corporate governance bodies, registration of the activities of the participants of the corporation and the corporate relations themselves using such means as agreements, corporate agreements, charters, regulations and other corporate local regulations. The features of vertical mobility in a corporate organization are considered, as the movement of a person in a corporation is due to a number of features, for example, career growth is possible under certain conditions: gender ties, social achievements, higher education and intelligence. It was revealed that participation in the corporation is not taken by the person himself, but by his quasi-social image. It was determined that a quasi-social image can be viewed as a set or set of certain features, characteristics and skills characteristic of a specific social personality: social experience, presence of social connections, professional skills of a person. The differences of the quasi-social image from the social personality are analyzed. It is concluded that one of the effective means of increasing the social mobility of an individual is a corporate organization, which is an integral part of social matter.
Keywords: social mobility, corporation, corporate organization, vertical mobility, quasi-social image.

Kovba, D. International Communications: Diplomacy in the Digital Age

The article analyzes the phenomenon of digital diplomacy in the modern era, examines the prerequisites for its occurrence, types and characteristics. It is proposed to transfer the concept of social mobility to the level of international relations and track the hierarchies existing there. It is indicated that the geopolitical landscape is characterized by limited mobility, since a small number of states dominate and produce an agenda. Despite this, less influential states can compete with more influential ones in the field of digital diplomacy. The nuances of implementing diplomacy on the Internet are listed: 1) the need for a significant amountof resources and a staff of specialists; 2) the importance of thinking through digital tactics and strategy; 3) the ability to provide fast feedback; 4) the complexity of monitoring campaigns in social networks; 5) the inability to guarantee results. It is pointed out that it is important to integrate digital tools into broader diplomatic strategies. Promising areas for authors see the use of educational games to influence public opinion, as well as the joint work of diplomats and developers to create new digital tools. The content of terms describing the impact of the Internet on diplomacy (cyber, e, virtual, web 2.0 and others) is revealed. So, today the prefix cyber is practically not used in relation to diplomacy. The same can be said about the prefix virtual. The prefix E (electronic) is used in Russian-language studies, but in English-language texts it is used mainly in business (e-commerce). The prefix Digital has evolved from using in the development and description of the digital divide to wider use by the public sector. It is concluded that in modern times digital diplomacy is an important complement to the activities of traditional diplomacy.
Keywords: digital diplomacy, international relations, e-diplomacy, digital strategies, mobility in social networks.

Levitsky, M., Isakov, A. Informatization in the Context of Mobility Discourse

This article is devoted to the analysis of mobility in the context of informatization. The importance of this process is provided proceeding from the modern realities and the current geopolitical situation, with the main object to be the phenomenon of mobile structures interception. Its main characteristics are studied, classification on the basis of division of society into five main spheres is carried out. The classification process identifies the distinctive features and characteristics of each species. The analysis is carried out on the subjects and objects of interception. The author considered mobile structures as market elements, touched upon supply and demand issues for each market according to the proposed classification, justified the importance of considering mobile structures through
the principles and rules of economic theory. The article indicates the sources of market equilibrium in the market of mobile structures and the necessary grounds for intercepting mobile structures, emphasizes the exceptional awareness of this management decision. The authoralso analyzes the important properties of mobility – competition and development – from the biological justification and ending with the modern laws of the development of society and the state. The importance of competition for the market of mobile structures is proved, its necessity for the development of society in general and of a person’s personality, in particular, is justified. It is important that the author cites examples from various areas of society, illustrating his theses. The concept proposed by the author can be useful when studying issues in such sciences as geopolitics, economics, sociology, and others. The article will be of interest to economists, company managers, politicians, people engaged in management activities, as well as anyone interested in the topic of mobility and informatization.
Keywords: mobility, informatization, economy, demand, offer, competition.

Moiseenko, Y. Mobility Turn in Modern Political Philosophy: New Methodological Horizons

The phenomenon of the “mobility turn” is considered in modern political philosophy as one of the consequences of the transformations that the Modern world has undergone since the beginning of modernity until the present time. Since the nature of these transformations is complex, each developed philosophical paradigm is ready to offer its own view on these “tectonic” shifts in social, political, anthropological, etc. spheres. Thus, the dominance of the discourse over the “bare facts” is not surprising, since it is the debates between supporters and opponents of various paradigms that largely constitute the subject field of modern humanitarian disciplines. Political philosophy is by no means an exception to the current trend, so it is necessary to respond to the challenges of its methodological and conceptual apparatus. In many respects in connection with this reason, the focus of attention of political theory was the fact of our everyday reality as the erection of the phenomenon of “mobility”, which was recorded in the philosophical thesaurus. This article attempts to outline one of the possible directions of the research beyond the framework of established sociological schools and approaches, e. g. system functionalism and post-structuralism. Such a promising direction seems to be the “phenomenology of mobility”, where the phenomenon of “mobility” itself is reviewed through the methodological lenses of Paul Virillo’ dromology and Martin Heidegger’s study of tέχνη. There are three special immanent features inherent in the mobile paradigm: “speed”, “technique” and “conformity”. Based on these properties, the article outlines the most promising horizons for the further study of “mobility” under the auspices of political philosophy, among which are its “dialectical” and “anthropological” reading.
Keywords: mobility turn, phenomenology of mobility, P. Virillo’s dromology, speed, technological vitalism, conformism.

Obolkina, S. The Mobility We Deserve. The Ontological Turn of the Problem

The paper analyzes the mobility paradigm and its role in the analysis of modern society. In this case, the concept of mobility is not so much a tool for analysis, as the subject of research. The connection of ideas about nonlinearity and mobility is considered. It is concluded that for modern reality the relationship between these categories is an inversely proportional relationship. Mobility of some elements of the system occurs due to an increase in the static nature of others. It makes investigate how truly possible it is to talk
about the mobility of the modern world. The world, which we postulate as mobile, shows a tendency to increase the rigidity of the structures of management and control. The author relies on many modern studies on the global city, network society, soft power, digital reality, and concludes that mobility requires first of all a special person, and not a special society. One of the solutions to this problem is revealed through the concept of P. Virno, who is looking for opportunities to understand society as a “multitude”. Carrying out his analysis at the junction of philosophical research and reflection of the political struggle of the left-radical movements of Italy, the scientist proposes to realize the knowledge of society not “from above” – from society and its structures, but “from below”. This
is essentially an anthropological, rather than a sociopolitical approach that claims to search for the foundations of a new subjectivity.  The concept of society, the primary intention of which is the need to transform anxiety into fear and to find protection from it, Virno contrasts the concept of “homeless” multitude – bios xenikos. This intellectual motive brings the work of Virno to ontological research of K. Meyasu. Such a meaningful intersection of various concepts and even rather distant from each other areas of philosophy marks the “painful points” of society, and also encourages research into the phenomenon of mobility as new perspectives.
Keywords: mobility, nonlinearity, philosophy of “multitude”, new subjectivity, bios xenikos.

Satybaldina, D. Mobilities: History, Development, Transformations

In this article the author tries to find borders of Mobility theory – quite a new theory which represents interdisciplinary researches of society and social space. Adverting to the most profound researches in this field (J. Urry, T. Cresswell) the author presents how the research field of Mobility theory was historically constructed. Moreover, the author tries to analyze modern changes of Mobility theory, which terms and phenomena are used for describing migration, transport and social mobilities. Giving classic mobility theorists their due it is important to mention for the author that this theory in the end of XX and beginning XXI century turned away from analyses of move, movement and changes themselves. “Non-places”, “immobility”, “stillness” take their places in mobility discourse what form specific dichotomy of mobile and immobile, moving and still which help to deeply analyze modern social occurrences and social space.
Keywords: Mobility studies, social space, city, transport mobility, “mobility turn”.

Shayakhmetova, I. State Regulation of Migration as a Limitation of Population Mobility in the USSR in the 1920s–1930s (on the example of the Southern Urals)

The article is devoted to the analysis of state regulation of migration, which led to the restriction of mobility of the Soviet population. Migration is directly related to urbanization. Migration acts as a mechanism of urbanization. The author applies comparativehistorical
and chronological methods of research. At the same time, the modern problems of placement and functioning of urban settlements are actualized. The data on the predominant attraction of migrants initially from villages to small in size, and then to larger cities. The article considers the attraction of rural migrants in the USSR to the cities under the influence of the prestige of more qualified employment, education and professional skills. The basic tendencies of consequences of restriction of mobility of the population in the USSR are defined. It is emphasized that these trends have taken place in the USSR everywhere, including in the southern Urals. In General, population migration has played a key role in domestic urbanization processes. Migration was both natural and organized by the state. The first type of migration is related to objective reasons: large-scale migrations during World War I, Civil war, famine of the period of “war communism” and collectivization of agriculture. This type of migration determined the vector of urbanization development with its predominant attraction to large cities. The second type of migration, authorized by the state, was part of a plan to build socialism in emergency conditions. This type of migration represented the organized recruitment of the population for the siting and construction of industrial enterprises. Large-scale migration, along with positive consequences, had negative consequences. They caused aggravation of a number of social problems: housing, providing citizens with social infrastructure, supply, etc. the Solution of all problems lay on the state, which through the Central ministries and departments allocated funds allocated to departmental industrial enterprises. Functioning of production served as a guarantee of stable existence of cities and urban population. This rule was formed in the 1920s and lasted until the early 1990s. It is concluded that migration is a key factor in the development of urbanization processes. Keywords: population, migration, southern Urals, state regulation.

Yungus, D., Vyazov, A. Social-Philosophical Interpretation of the Effectiveness of Mediation in the Negotiation Process: Mobile Transition from Conflict to Solidarity

The article is devoted to the social and philosophical problem of mobile restoration of trust and solidarity through dialogue. The method of compromise in dialog situations involves turning to moral theories. The social philosophical aspect of mediation is considered. The problem of continuity of social concepts of mediation and mediation for reconciliation in society can be investigated through the relationship between philosophical and social knowledge in order to find resources for the modern development  of mediation procedures in society. The factors of the mediation approach in the negotiations are the level of development of the socialcultural and institutional context in the social space of the conciliation dialogue. Negotiations are a space for dialogue and solidarity. The process of finding a compromise is analyzed. The talks involve the gradual restoration of relations and the formation of social trust between the parties at each step of the dialogue. The socialphilosophical understanding of the restoration of relations through mediation, as well as thinking about the conciliatory potential of mediation. The principles of negotiation work equally at different social levels – from interpersonal to intergroup. The mediator solves the problem of distrust and misunderstanding by explaining the essence of the positions of the other. Dialogue itself is a relation. The key functions of the mediator in the mediation conciliation negotiation process are as follows: to establish social contact and constructive dialogue and to stimulate a sense of solidarity: to control
the process of dialogue.
Keywords: social philosophy, solidarity, conflict, mediation, philosophy, negotiations.

Part II
Mobility in The Context of Soft Power Strategy

Batishchev, R., Ivanov, A.  Russian Orthodox Church as an Actor of Russian “Soft Power” in the Post-Soviet Space

The article is devoted to the analysis of Russian Orthodox
Church in the context of the realization of Russian soft power strategy
in the post-Soviet space. With the absence of complete and coherent
state’s political ideology it is focused on the opportunities
of responsive application of Church’s ideological and symbolical
resources as a large non-state actor. It is stressed that Russian Orthodox
Church de-facto has its own political and ideological doctrine
and pays great attention to these issues. It is emphasized on the conception
of “the Russian world” as an ideological basis and one
of Russian foreign-policy strategies in the space of former USSR.
It is described religious and messianic content of “the Russian world”
conception and its significant geopolitical focus that are in the context
of past decades Russian foreign policy’s conditions. It is identified
the correlation and a common vector of activities between Russian
state and the Church for the support of the Russian world’s
community. Besides, there is a crucial difference in the measures
and the ways of this idea’s realization. Russian state officials follows
the necessity of the communication with “near aboard” countries.
The officials are obliged to revolve to more pragmatic foreign
policy, giving up any ideological constructions. In contrast, Russian
Orthodox Church is independent from these circumstances and actively
uses soft power s flexible tools. In the context of an actual
Ukrainian schism, it is concluded there is the recognition of Russian
Orthodox Church’s strong influence as an actor of Russian soft
power abroad.
Russian Orthodox Church, soft power, geopolitics, post-Soviet
space, Russian foreign policy, Ukrainian crisis, Russian world.

Vasilieva, S. Applying a Soft Power Strategy on a Regional Scale: the Turkish Experience

The article is devoted to the study of the characteristics
of the application of the strategy of “soft power” by Turkey in relation
to the Turkic states of the South Caucasus and Central Asia.
The author highlights the specific characteristics of the Turkish strategy
of “soft power” (ideologization and institutionalization), which
make it possible to particularly successfully influence the population
and the leadership of the Turkic states. Speaking about the “soft
power” strategy tools, the author pays special attention to mobility
in various spheres of public life. As part of the study of academic
mobility, the issues of education of citizens of Turkic-speaking states
in Turkey, as well as the creation of Turkish educational institutions
in the post-Soviet space were considered. Analyzing the use of “soft
power” strategy in the economic sphere, the author emphasizes
the importance of migration flows from the Turkic-speaking countries
to Turkey. We are talking about legal and illegal labor migration,
tourism, as well as investment and trade and economic cooperation.
The implementation of the strategy of “soft power” in the political
sphere is considered on the example of the work of the Cooperation
Council of Turkic-speaking states, ensuring the institutionalization
of the Turkic integration processes, as well as enhancing political
mobility between the Turkic countries. Presented conclusions about
the features and effectiveness of the application of the strategy
of “soft power” are illustrated by departmental statistics of Turkish
ministries and specialized services.
Turkey, soft power strategy, mobility, pan-Turkism, Turkic states.

Dvoinenko, M., Smirnov, M. Mobility as a Necessary Element of the Enemy Image Forming in Terms of Society Mobilization: Through the Lenses of Political Discourse in Modern Russia

The article is devoted to the analysis of using the enemy image
in the media space as a technology of rapid mobilization of society
and the legitimization of state power faced with a complicated
internal economic situation and foreign policy challenges. The authors
use methods of comparative analysis as well as an analysis
of sociological data and economic statistics to identify correlations
between an increase in the level of legitimacy of state power (expressed
in the rating of trust in and approval of the main institutions)
and the level of anxiety in society towards the enemy and to explore
the dynamics of this correlation. The events of the political
process in the Russian Federation between 2012 and 2017, that gave
the most obvious example of using this method of mobilization,
serves as an empirical base of research. At the same time, the article
draws attention to the fact that the technology of legitimizing
state power through building an image of the enemy in the media
space has many side effects and produces unstable results. The article
comes to a conclusion that the formation of the enemy image
in the political discourse and its consequent interactive transmission
to the mass consciousness effectively mobilizes the society from top
to bottom in the context of economic stagnation and gives the government
a time to solve economic and political problems. However,
given the absence of dynamics towards an improvement in the economic
sphere, the society refuses to consider the need in security
as the dominant value. At the same time, the legitimacy of the basic
institutions of power is rapidly declining. In case of long-term use
of those methods to integrate the society and to legitimate the power,
there is a need to permanently update the enemy image, making
it adaptive and mobile according to the dynamics and requirements
of modern times.
legitimacy of state power, political mobilization, enemy image, political discourse, social integration.

Dzhanaeva, A. Modern Scientific Discourse of “Soft Power” in Foreign and Domestic Literature

The article is devoted to the study of the concept of “soft power”
and its place in the modern scientific foreign and domestic literature.
The author has studied in detail the evolution of the concept of “soft
power” in the works of Joseph Nye Jr., who proposed the use of this
neologism within the framework of the theory of international relations,
starting with the earliest of his article and ending with the latest
one. It was revealed that initially “soft power” was a vague theoretical
concept, which nevertheless gained immense popularity not only
among political scientists, but also among representatives of related
disciplines. In addition, an analysis of the works of foreign and Russian
authors carried out, the main directions identified, within which
the phenomenon of “soft power” considered and interpreted. Special
attention paid to the consideration of alternative concepts of nonforce
influence, such as “strategic narrative”, “cosmopolitan power”,
“power currency”, developed by English-speaking researchers. In domestic
discourse, emphasis placed on preserving and transmitting
to Russian the meaning and semantics of neologism “soft power,”
therefore, issues such as the correct translation of the new term and its
understanding by each individual expert raised. It also noted that
in the Russian-language scientific discourse the term was adopted
rather quickly and had a significant impact on the study of the mechanism
of non-force influence. However, the concept of “soft power”
has received tremendous development within the framework of such
a discipline as international relations and world politics, as it originally
intended. In general, conclusions were made that, despite the extensive
criticism received after the concept was published, “soft power”
continues to enjoy popularity and has firmly entered the scientific
lexicon of domestic and foreign scientists.
Keywords: soft power, non-force influence, strategic narrative, cosmopolitan power, power currency.

Lunkov, A. The Mobility of Modern War: from Soft Power to Brutal Violence

Modern war is a complex social phenomenon. The discourse
of mobility plays an important role in its understanding. The purpose
of this article is to study a number of modern concepts of warfare
and to identify the role and place in them of the concept of mobility
and the concepts associated with it. The focus is on S. Mann’s
theory of “controlled chaos”, G. Sharp’s concept of non-violent resistance
and J. Warden’s concept of the “effects-based operation”.
All these concepts have been tested in a number of military conflicts
and “color revolutions” and fit well into the concept of “hybrid war”.
According to the “controlled chaos” theory, the phenomenon of war

should be viewed from the point of view of a new scientific paradigm.
This paradigm implies a departure from the classical “mechanistic”
understanding of war as a process amenable to management
and control. The paradigm of chaos analyzes international relations
as a superposition of the influence vectors of a huge number
of actors. Therefore, it is extremely difficult, or completely impossible,
to calculate the dynamics of international relations. However,
if one has the technology of artificially creating a situation of chaos
in the system of internal or external relations of the enemy state,
then one can achieve its military-political goals in a relatively simple
way. The concept of non-violent resistance proposes a specific,
repeatedly tested, method of initiating movement towards a situation
of externally controlled chaos. Usually, states are fairly resistant
to violent attempts to plunge them into a situation of instability,
but under certain conditions, they are powerless against the “eroding”
force of non-violent resistance. How this happens in practice
is demonstrated by numerous “color revolutions”, which most often
are only the first phase of “chaos” of the targeted state. Actually,
the military phase of the implementation of the “controlled chaos”
theory can be an “effects-based operation”, within which the target
state is brought to a state of strategic paralysis, which facilitates
further intervention and the construction of a new statehood in this
territory. The essence of such operations is the use of a combination
of direct and indirect military influences on various targets, the destruction
or blocking of which causes effects in other strategic areas.
soft power, hybrid war, controlled chaos, non-violent resistance,
S. Mann, G. Sharp, J. Warden.

Romashkina, A.  Instrumental Potential  of New Communication Technologies in the Sphere of Modern Politics

The article analyzes the role of modern information
and communication technologies in the political sphere. The paper
studies the issues related to the communicative nature of the key
elements of the political system of society. The article also considers
the transition from traditional models of mass communication
in politics to new information and communication models of interaction
of political actors with society and citizens. The Internet
is considered in the work as a new space of communication, which
creates new different forms of social relations. The article reveals
one of the characteristics of the social media space as a competitive
environment. The paper notes the potential of modern mass
media, their key differences from traditional media, as well
as their role in the functioning of traditional institutions of power.
At the same time, attention is drawn to the fact that modern means
of communication can lead to problems associated with the formation
of negative consequences in the conditions of digital inequality,
global digital control and the use of “soft power”. The study
concluded that manipulation in the Internet space is becoming one
of the main tools of information impact on the target audience.
The role of modern “leaders of public opinion” – Internet bloggers
in the new conditions of functioning of political structures
is noted. The study concluded that the stability of the political system
depends on the choice of means of communication, which use
in their work the traditional institutions of power. It is also noted
that in modern political relations, the authorities need to use all
the instrumental potential of new means of communication in order
to be able to resist the destructive use of soft power by political
Keyworlds: political manipulation, information and communication technologies, persuasive communication, Internet technologies, social media, traditional mass media.

Rusakova, O., Rusakov, V. The Discourse of Mobility: The Diversity of Contexts

The article is devoted to the study of the problem of expansion
of the semantic space of mobility discourse through the study
of its contextual plans: the context of soft power tools, the context

of the media sphere, the context of the socio-cultural anthroposphere.
The methodological basis of the contextual analysis of the mobility
discourse is the principle of integration synthesis, which allows
to identify the points of intersection of the mobility discourse with
the discursive areas of other contextual spheres. The authors argue
that the integrating core of the discourse of mobility and soft power
is their belonging to the field of communicative values. In the discourse
of mobility such basic communicative values as speed, flexibility,
adaptability, innovation are cultivated, and in the discourse
of soft power-the creation and transmission of attractive images
of agents of influence, the development of voluntary exchange
processes, non-violent conflict management, peacekeeping, etc.
It is concluded that mobility as a characteristic of soft power in semantic
terms means efficiency, responsiveness to novelty, the ability
to flexibly combine elements of soft and hard influence (smart
power). When considering the mobility discourse in the context
of the media sphere, special attention is paid to such phenomena
as the mobilization potential of new media, digital mobility, mobility
of media propaganda discourse. There is a direct dependence of mobile
lifestyle on information technologies. In the process of discourse
analysis of mobility in the context of a perspective of “anthropological
catastrophe”, the authors draw attention to the qualitative
changes in the modern antroposfera, occurring under the influence
of the cult of mobile technology and the process of digitalization
of public life. The article highlights the threats to human existence
associated with non-critical total application of digital technologies
in the spheres of management, education, etc. human dependence
on digital systems eventually leads to digital inequality, to the dehumanization
of the individual, to the emergence of Orwell-type society
and the emergence of the postman. The authors see a way out
of the situation of digital dehumanization in the assertion of the paradigm
of the dialectical connection of mobility and stability (variability
and stability), as well as in the development of the concepts
of digital equality and “smart power”.
discourse of mobility and the discourse of soft power, smart power,
mass media, digital mobility, digital divide, media discourse,
propaganda, anthropological catastrophe, the dehumanization,
the posthuman.

Stroganov, V. Political Internet Rhizomorphization as a Form of Soft Power

The article is devoted to the analysis of the features of modern
political Internet communication and its place in the concept of “soft
power”. The article explores modern systems of web-technologies
in the context of political communication. The author considers
the evolution of the development of web-technology, and highlights
the key stage of the Web 2.0 system – “new media”. Today
it is one of the most urgent form of Internet communication, due
to the active distribution and influence of social networks on the political
process. The author conducted a content analysis of the scientific
and journalistic literature of domestic and foreign authors.
Later, the results of the analysis were synthesized with the features
of the modern Internet communication highlighted by the author.
This allowed us to draw an analogy with the phenomenon of “rhizome”,
described by French philosophers post-modernists Gilles
Delezem and Feleks Guattari. As a result, the author identified
the phenomenon of rhizomorphization, gave his own definition,
and also revealed its key characteristics. On this basis, the author
introduces a new definition into scientific circulation – “political
rhizomorphization”. In analyzing this phenomenon, the author focuses
on the viral nature of the rhizomorphic political communication
on the Internet, where the key form of the virus, according
to the author, is political memes. The author describes the typology
of political memes and highlights their key features. As a result,
it was determined that political memes are a form of an independent
language – the “new language” of the Internet. Thus, the author talks
about a new way of communication – meme. The author also makes
a comparison between the meme language and the English language
in the context of the influence of “soft power”. Further, the author
identified a number of features characteristic of policy and political
governance on the Internet. In particular, the article draws attention
to the factors that complicate direct political governance in the context
of political Internet rhizomorphization. According to the author,
such factors are: firstly, the chaotic nature of the transfer of political
information; secondly, active horizontal political mobility, which
provides opportunities for users to move between different political
groups on the Internet. As a result, it was concluded that direct
political control over the Internet is either extremely complicated
or not possible in principle. Thus, tools and forms of “soft power”
come in its place: political PR, political culture, various technologies
of political manipulation, etc.
rhizomorphization, soft power, the Internet, chaos, political
Tkachenko, O., Polyushkevich, O. Migration Mobility: Strength or Weakness of State Development

The article is devoted to the analysis of migration mobility –
its influence on the development of the state. The problems of cultural
exchange with foreign citizens, its benefits to achieve a high
level of human capital of the Russian Federation through mutual
enrichment with images are considered. It analyzes the domestic
experience of student exchange with the experience of other countries,
the reasons for the predominance of visitors from Africa, China
and the countries of the former Soviet Union. The prerequisites
of a “brain drain” abroad and the lack of a high-quality exchange
with Western countries due to their choice to study by our students
and the rare choice of Russia by Western students are explored.
It considers the internal cultural exchange between regions, its meaning
and benefits. The statistics of internal migration of the population,
characterized by the fact that student migration is centralized
in Moscow, Moscow and Leningrad regions, is analyzed. A similar
picture is observed in the labor migration of the population, which
chooses these regions because of the high incomes and living standards
in comparison with other subjects of the Russian Federation. The strategy of soft power is considered as a tool for getting out

of the current situation, the ways of its application are analyzed.
The main message of foreign and domestic cinema about Russia
is being studied, the formed image and its influence on the attractiveness
of the country for foreign citizens is considered. Measures
are being taken to increase the attractiveness of Russia in the eyes
of citizens of other countries to implement the strategy of soft power,
and as a result – attracting foreigners to Russia for scientific, cultural
labor exchange, improving human capital. Such measures
may be: the creation of good conditions for foreigners in a situation
of exchange of cultural experience; creating your own system
of managing subjects without relying on existing ones; formation
of attachment of the population to their region through inculcating
interest in it through the school curriculum.
mobility, migration, soft power, internal migration of population,
human capital.
Shushakova, V., Isakov, A. International Communication: Mobility Factors in the Context of Soft Power

This article reveals the main indicators of soft power
as a form of political power based on the ability of States to attract
others to their side by demonstrating their cultural and moral
values, the attractiveness of the political course and the effectiveness
of political institutions. At the same time, attention is drawn
to the fact that mobility, dynamism, globalization and interdependence
have become characteristic features of our time, and therefore
it is so important to establish contact and bilateral communication
Часть II Мобильность в контексте стратегии «мягкой силы»
between the world powers, based on their voluntary participation,
sympathy and attractiveness as partners and allies. When writing
the article, the author uses such research methods as comparative
analysis of various indices and indicators, statistical data evaluation,
expert interview review. At the same time, the official statistics
of labor migration in Russia in recent years, the indices of the world
rankings of the best higher education institutions and indicators
of the use of soft power of the leading 30 countries are given. These
coefficients emphasize the need for further development of the attractiveness
of our country’s culture, political ideals and foreign
policy. These indices also help to identify a number of problems
facing our political scientists and possible ways to solve them, mentioned
in this paper. The conclusions describe the current situation
in Russia at the moment. Particular attention is paid to the directions
of development of international relations and the concepts of development
of domestic and foreign policy of the States, which contributes
to the allocation of key areas of development of soft power
in different countries. The considered foreign experience can also
be useful in the construction of new strategies for the development
of education, culture, public administration and other indicators
of the soft power of the Russian Federation.
mobility, migration, soft power, public diplomacy, Informatization.